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John Timothy Wootton

InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentEcology and Evolution
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    My research focuses on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among organisms. My work centers on how multi-species systems function and on evaluating methods that might predict how such systems will respond to environmental change, particularly in regard to the current epidemic of species extinctions and introductions occurring throughout the world and to global changes such as ocean acidification. I have conducted research on a wide variety of related subjects and retain active research interests in most of them, including the role of ecological factors on the evolution of life history and mating systems, and population viability models of endangered species. I work in several different systems, and study a range of taxa. My general approach develops and tests questions or models of broad theoretical interest, using field experiments, observations of large-scale species introductions, and between-system comparisons. Currently, my research focuses on rocky intertidal marine communities (particularly on Tatoosh Island, Washington) and rivers, which serve as model experimental systems for ecology.

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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkBS (Honors)05/1984Biology (Ecology, Systematics and Evolution)
    University of Washington, Seattle, WashingtonPh.D.08/1990Zoology
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California12/1992Integrative Biology
    Collapse awards and honors
    1994Mercer Award, Ecological Society of America
    1992Young Investigator Prize, American Society of Naturalists
    1990 - 1992Miller Fellowship, University of California, Berkeley

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Heilpern SA, Wootton JT. Process catalyzers in Amazonian rivers: large woody debris modifies ecosystem processes across freshwater habitats. Ecosphere. 2018; 9:e2030.
    2. McCoy SJ, Kamenos NA, Chung P, Wootton JT, Pfister CA. Altered crystal mineralogy in the California mussel on decadal and centennial scales in a changing ocean. Global Change Biology. 2018; 24:2554-2562.
    3. Olack G, Pfister CA, Wootton JT, and Colman A. Blanks in DIC analysis: long term storage effects on concentration and isotopic measurements using small sample sizes. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 2018; 16:170-179.
    4. Voorhies KJ, Wootton JT, Henkel SK. Longstanding signals of marine community structuring by winter storm wave-base. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2018; 603:135-146.
    5. Sander EL, Wootton JT, Allesina S. Ecological Network Inference From Long-Term Presence-Absence Data. Sci Rep. 2017 08 02; 7(1):7154. PMID: 28769079; PMCID: PMC5541006.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    
    6. Jackrel SL, Morton TC, Wootton JT. Intraspecific leaf chemistry drives locally accelerated ecosystem function in aquatic and terrestrial communities. Ecology. 2016 Aug; 97(8):2125-2135. PMID: 27859211.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    7. Stepien CC, Pfister CA, Wootton JT. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159062. PMID: 27415005; PMCID: PMC4944969.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Pfister CA, Roy K, Wootton JT, McCoy SJ, Paine RT, Suchanek TH, Sanford E. Historical baselines and the future of shell calcification for a foundation species in a changing ocean. Proc Biol Sci. 2016 06 15; 283(1832). PMID: 27306049; PMCID: PMC4920315.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    9. Wootton JT. A 20-year data set of species replacement patterns in the intertidal zone of Tatoosh Island, Washington, USA. Ecology. 2016; 97:810.
    10. Pfister CA, Paine RT, Wootton JT. The iconic keystone predator has a pathogen. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2016; 14:285-286.
    11. Novak M, Yeakel JD, Noble AE, Doak DF, Emmerson M, Estes JA, Jacob U, Tinker MT, Wootton JT. Characterizing species interactions: What is the community matrix?. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 2016; 47:409-432.
    12. Jackrel SL, Wootton JT. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142362. PMID: 26539714; PMCID: PMC4634761.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    13. Wootton JT, Pfister CA. Processes affecting extinction risk in the laboratory and in nature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 03; 112(44):E5903. PMID: 26483511; PMCID: PMC4640784.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. Sander EL, Wootton JT, Allesina S. What Can Interaction Webs Tell Us About Species Roles? PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Jul; 11(7):e1004330. PMID: 26197151; PMCID: PMC4511233.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    15. Jackrel SL, Wootton JT. Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function. Proc Biol Sci. 2015 Apr 22; 282(1805). PMID: 25788602; PMCID: PMC4389606.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Jackrel SL, Wootton JT. Local adaptation of stream communities to intraspecific variation in a terrestrial ecosystem subsidy. Ecology. 2014 Jan; 95(1):37-43. PMID: 24649644.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    17. Wootton JT, Bell DA. Assessing predictions of population viability analysis: Peregrine Falcon populations in California. Ecol Appl. 2014; 24(6):1251-7. PMID: 29160650.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    18. Travis J, Coleman FC, Auster PJ, Cury PM, Estes JA, Orensanz J, Peterson CH, Power ME, Steneck RS, Wootton JT. Integrating the invisible fabric of nature into fisheries management. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 14; 111(2):581-4. PMID: 24367087; PMCID: PMC3896161.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    
    19. Wootton JT, Pfister CA. Experimental separation of genetic and demographic factors on extinction risk in wild populations. Ecology. 2013 Oct; 94(10):2117-23. PMID: 24358695.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Wootton JT, Forester JD. Complex population dynamics in mussels arising from density-linked stochasticity. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75700. PMID: 24086617; PMCID: PMC3781081.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Wootton JT. An experimental test of multi-species Markov models: Are barnacles long-term facilitators of mussel bed recovery?. Bulletin of Marine Science. 2013; 89:337-346. View Publication.
    22. Wootton JT, Pfister CA. Carbon system measurements and potential climatic drivers at a site of rapidly declining ocean pH. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e53396. PMID: 23285290; PMCID: PMC3532172.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
    23. Wootton JT. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51839. PMID: 23284786; PMCID: PMC3527445.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    24. Wootton JT. Effects of timber harvest on river food webs: physical, chemical and biological responses. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e43561. PMID: 22957030; PMCID: PMC3434149.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    25. Pfister CA, McCoy SJ, Wootton JT, Martin PA, Colman AS, Archer D. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25766. PMID: 21991348; PMCID: PMC3185010.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    26. Novak M, Wootton JT, Doak DF, Emmerson M, Estes JA, Tinker MT. Predicting community responses to perturbations in the face of imperfect knowledge and network complexity. Ecology. 2011 Apr; 92(4):836-46. PMID: 21661547.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. McCoy SJ, Robinson LF, Pfister CA, Wootton JT. Exploring B/Ca as a pH proxy for bivalves: relationships between Mytilus californianus B/Ca and environmental data from the northeast Pacific. Biogeosciences. 2011; 8:2567-2579. View Publication.
    28. Paine RT, Wootton JT, Pfister CA. . The Ecology of Place (Billick I, Price M, eds.). A sense of place: Tatoosh. 2011; 229-250. View Publication.
    29. Barner AK, Pfister CA, Wootton JT. The mixed mating system of the sea palm kelp Postelsia palmaeformis: few costs to selfing. Proc Biol Sci. 2011 May 07; 278(1710):1347-55. PMID: 20961896; PMCID: PMC3061143.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Wootton JT. Experimental species removal alters ecological dynamics in a natural ecosystem. Ecology. 2010 Jan; 91(1):42-8. PMID: 20380194.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. . Using experimental indices to quantify the strength of species interactions. Oikos. 2010; 119:1057-1063. View Publication.
    32. Nelis LC, Wootton JT. Treatment-based Markov chain models clarify mechanisms of invasion in an invaded grassland community. Proc Biol Sci. 2010 Feb 22; 277(1681):539-47. PMID: 19864293; PMCID: PMC2842685.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Wootton JT, Cusson M, Navarrete S, Petraitis PS. Marine Hard Bottom Communities: Patterns, Dynamics, Diversity and Change (Wahl M, ed.). Disruption, succession and stochasticity. 2009; 201-212. View Publication.
    34. Wootton JT, Pfister CA, Forester JD. Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 02; 105(48):18848-53. PMID: 19033205; PMCID: PMC2596240.
      Citations: 79     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    35. Novak M, Wootton JT. Estimating nonlinear interaction strengths: an observation-based method for species-rich food webs. Ecology. 2008 Aug; 89(8):2083-9. PMID: 18724718.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Doak DF, Estes JA, Halpern BS, Jacob U, Lindberg DR, Lovvorn J, Monson DH, Tinker MT, Williams TM, Wootton JT, Carroll I, Emmerson M, Micheli F, Novak M. Understanding and predicting ecological dynamics: are major surprises inevitable? Ecology. 2008 Apr; 89(4):952-61. PMID: 18481520.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    
    37. Pfister CA, Wootton JT, Neufeld CJ. The relative roles of coastal and oceanic processes in determining physical and chemical characteristics of an intensively sampled nearshore system. Limnology and Oceanography. 2007; 52:1767-1775. View Publication.
    38. Wootton JT. Encylopedia of Tidepools (Denny M, Gaines S, eds.). Birds. 2007; 91-95. View Publication.
    39. Wootton JT. Encylopedia of Tidepools (Denny M, Gaines S, eds.). Gulls. 2007; 252-255. View Publication.
    40. Kusumo HT, Pfister CA, Wootton JT. Small-scale genetic structure in the sea palm Postelsia palmaeformis Ruprecht (Phaeophyceae). Marine Biology. 2006; 139:731-742. View Publication.
    41. Wootton JT. Field parameterization and experimental test of the neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature. 2005 Jan 20; 433(7023):309-12. PMID: 15662423.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Wootton JT, Emmerson M. Measurement of interaction strength in nature. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 2005; 36:419-444. View Publication.
    43. Downing AL, Wootton JT. Food Webs: Structure, Stability and Ecosystem Functioning (de Ruiter P, Moore J, Wolters V, eds.). Trophic position, biotic context, and abiotic factors determine species contributions to ecosystem functioning. 2005; 295-307.
    44. Tsao JI, Wootton JT, Bunikis J, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour AG. An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 28; 101(52):18159-64. PMID: 15608069; PMCID: PMC536054.
      Citations: 137     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Wootton JT. Markov chain models predict the consequences of experimental extinctions. Ecology Letters. 2004; 7:653-660. View Publication.
    46. Kusumo HT, Pfister CA, Wootton JT. Dominant (AFLP) and codominant (microsatellite) markers for the kelp Postelsia palmaeformis (Laminariales). Molecular Ecology Notes. 2004; 4:372-375. View Publication.
    47. Wootton JT, Downing AL. The Importance of Species (Kareiva PM, Levin SA, eds.). Understanding the effects of reduced biodiversity: A comparison of two approaches. 2003; 85-104. View Publication.
    48. Wootton JT. Mechanisms of successional dynamics: consumers and the rise and fall of species dominance. Ecological Research. 2002; 17:249-260. View Publication.
    49. Parker MS, Power ME, Wootton JT. Effects of substrate composition, stream-bed stability, and sediment supply on survival and trophic role of a dominant stream grazer. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angevandte Limnologie. 2002; 28:238:241. View Publication.
    50. Wootton JT. Indirect effects in complex ecosystems: recent progress and future challenges. Journal of Sea Research. 2002; 48:157-172. View Publication.
    51. Wootton JT, Wootton JT. Local interactions predict large-scale pattern in empirically derived cellular automata. Nature. 2001 Oct 25; 413(6858):841-4. PMID: 11677606.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Wootton JT. Causes of species diversity differences: a comparative analysis of Markov models. Ecology Letters. 2001; 4:46-56. View Publication.
    53. Wootton JT. Prediction in complex communities: analysis of empirically-derived Markov models. Ecology. 2001; 82:580-598. View Publication.
    54. Wootton JT. Effects of disturbance on species diversity: a multitrophic perspective. Am Nat. 1998 Dec; 152(6):803-25. PMID: 18811429.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    
    55. Laska MS, Wootton JT. Theoretical concepts and empirical approaches to measuring interaction strength. Ecology. 1998; 79:461-476. View Publication.
    56. Wootton JT, Pfister CA. Issues and Perspectives in Experimental Ecology (Resetarits WJ, Bernardo J, eds.). The motivation of and context for experiments in ecology. 1998; 350-369. View Publication.
    57. Wootton JT. Estimates and tests of per-capita interaction strength: diet, abundance, and impact of intertidally foraging birds. Ecological Monographs. 1997; 67:45-64. View Publication.
    58. Wootton JT, Power ME, Paine RT, Pfister CA. Effects of productivity, consumers, competitors, and El Niño events on food chain patterns in a rocky intertidal community. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 26; 93(24):13855-8. PMID: 11038528; PMCID: PMC19447.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    59. Wootton JT, Parker MS, Power ME. :. Effects of disturbance on river food webs. Science. 1996; 273:1558-1561. View Publication.
    60. Power ME, Parker MS, Wootton JT. Food Webs: Integration of Patterns and Dynamics (Polis GA, Winemiller KO, eds.). Disturbance and food chain length in rivers. 1996; 286-297. View Publication.
    61. Wootton JT. Purple Finch. The Birds of North America. 1996; 208:1-20. View Publication.
    62. Wootton JT. Effects of birds on sea urchins and algae: a lower-intertidal trophic cascade. Ecoscience. 1995; 2:321-328. View Publication.
    63. Power ME, Parker G, Dietrich WE, Sun A, Wootton JT. :. Hydraulic food chain models: an approach to the study of food web dynamics in large rivers. Bioscience. 1995; 45:159-167. View Publication.
    64. Wootton JT. The nature and consequences of indirect effects in ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 1994; 25:443-466. View Publication.
    65. Wootton JT. Predicting direct and indirect effects: an integrated approach using experiments and path analysis. Ecology. 1994; 75:151-165. View Publication.
    66. Wootton JT. Putting the pieces together: testing the independence of interactions among organisms. Ecology. 1994; 75:1544-1551. View Publication.
    67. Wootton JT, Power ME. Productivity, consumers, and the structure of a river food chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 15; 90(4):1384-7. PMID: 11607368; PMCID: PMC45877.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    
    68. Wootton JT. Indirect effects and habitat use in an intertidal community: interaction chains and interaction modifications. American Naturalist. 1993; 141:71-89. View Publication.
    69. Wootton JT. Size-dependent competition: effects on the dynamics versus the endpoint of mussel bed succession. Ecology. 1993; 74:195-206. View Publication.
    70. Wootton JT, Bollinger EK. Bobolink polygyny in a homogeneous habitat: a test of the asynchronous settlement model. Am Nat. 1992 Dec; 140(6):1050-7. PMID: 19426033.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    71. Wootton JT. Indirect effects, prey susceptibility, and habitat selection: impacts of birds on limpets and algae. Ecology. 1992; 73:981-991. View Publication.
    72. Wootton JT, Bell DA. A metapopulation model of the Peregrine Falcon in California: viability and management strategies. Ecological Applications. 1992; 2:307-321. View Publication.
    73. Wootton JT, Oemke MP. Latitudinal differences in fish community trophic structure and the role of fish herbivory in a Costa Rican stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 1992; 35:311-319. View Publication.
    74. Wootton JT. Direct and indirect effects of nutrients on intertidal community structure: variable consequences of seabird guano. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 1991; 151:139-153. View Publication.
    75. Wootton JT, Young BE, Winkler DW. Ecological versus evolutionary hypotheses: demographic stasis and the Murray-Nolan clutch size equation. Evolution. 1991; 45:1947-1950. View Publication.
    76. Paine RT, Wootton JT, Boersma PD. Direct and indirect effects of Peregrine Falcon predation on seabird abundance. Auk. 1990; 107:1-9.
    77. Wootton JT, Sun IF. Bract liquid as an herbivore defense mechanism for Heliconia wagneriana inflorescences. Biotropica. 1990; 22:155-159. View Publication.
    78. Wootton JT. The effects of body mass, phylogeny, habitat and trophic level on mammalian age at first reproduction. Evolution. 1987; 41:732-749. View Publication.
    79. Wootton JT. Interspecific competition between introduced House Finch populations and two associated passerine species. Oecologia. 1987; 71:325-331. View Publication.
    80. Bollinger EK, Gavin TA, Hibbard CJ, Wootton JT. . Two male Bobolinks feed young at the same nest. Wilson Bulletin. 1986; 98:154-156. View Publication.
    81. Wootton JT. Clutch-size differences in western and introduced eastern populations of House Finches: patterns and hypotheses. Wilson Bulletin. 1986; 98:459-462. View Publication.
    82. Wootton JT, Bollinger EK, Hibbard CJ. Mating systems in homogeneous habitats: the effects of female uncertainty, knowledge costs, and random settlement. American Naturalist. 1986; 128:499-512. View Publication.
    83. Paine RT, Wootton JT, Pfister CA. The Ecology of Place (Billick I, Price M, eds.). A sense of place: Tatoosh. 229-250.
    84. Wootton JT. Mutualism (Bronstein JL, ed.). Interaction strengths and mutualism. 143-144.
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