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Mark Westneat

InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentOrganismal Biology and Anatomy
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    There are three primary questions around which I build my research program: What is the tree of life? How do animals work? How is structural and functional diversity generated and maintained? In order to play a part in these fields of inquiry, the central goals of much of the research in my laboratory are

    (1) to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of major coral reef fish groups,

    (2) to investigate basic biomechanics and functional morphology in organisms, and

    (3) to integrate phylogeny with biomechanics to understand the evolution of function in diverse groups of organisms.

    This research focuses primarily on phylogenetic systematics and the study of function in an attempt to generate an integrative approach to evolution. We try to use a range of techniques and approaches to these questions, from the resolution of phylogenetic relationships among fishes using molecular phylogenetics, to computer modeling and detailed biomechanics of muscle-tendon-bone systems (e.g. feeding mechanics) in fishes, to field studies of ecological traits of animals (habitat, feeding biology), to the internal function of small animals using a novel method in high-energy physics called synchrotron imaging. Ideas and techniques are employed from the fields of comparative and functional morphology, phylogenetic systematics, mechanical engineering, muscle physiology, morphometrics, and field ecology. By integrating data from different aspects of the biology of a group of organisms, I hope to reveal a broader picture of the complex evolutionary history of a diverse taxonomic group or an interesting functional system than could be generated from any single discipline alone.

    Students are welcome in the laboratory, and have worked on a much wider range of questions and organisms (fossils, birds, insects, lizards, snakes, and more!). Most students working in the lab have a general interest in evolution, biomechanics, phylogenetics, fishes, coral reefs, and/or field work.

    Check out the pages on my Field Museum web site to see more detail on the projects going on in the Westneat Lab!

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    College of Wooster, Wooster, OHB.A.06/1984Biology
    Duke University, Durham, NCPh.D.06/1990Zoology
    Duke University, Durham, NCPostdoctoral10/1991Neurobiology

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Evans KM, Larouche O, Gartner SM, Faucher RE, Dee SG, Westneat MW. Beaks promote rapid morphological diversification along distinct evolutionary trajectories in labrid fishes (Eupercaria: Labridae). Evolution. 2023 09 01; 77(9):2000-2014. PMID: 37345732.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    2. Hughes LC, Nash CM, White WT, Westneat MW. Concordance and Discordance in the Phylogenomics of the Wrasses and Parrotfishes (Teleostei: Labridae). Syst Biol. 2023 Jun 17; 72(3):530-543. PMID: 36331534.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Larouche O, Gartner SM, Westneat MW, Evans KM. Mosaic Evolution of the Skull in Labrid Fishes Involves Differences in Both Tempo and Mode of Morphological Change. Syst Biol. 2023 Jun 16; 72(2):419-432. PMID: 36111797.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Harrison JF, McKenzie EKG, Talal S, Socha JJ, Westneat MW, Matthews PGD. Air sacs are a key adaptive trait of the insect respiratory system. J Exp Biol. 2023 05 15; 226(10). PMID: 37204298.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    5. Kaczmarek EB, Gartner SM, Westneat MW, Brainerd EL. Air Breathing and Suction Feeding Kinematics in the West African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Integr Comp Biol. 2022 10 29; 62(4):865-877. PMID: 35798019.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Gartner SM, Whitlow KR, Laurence-Chasen JD, Kaczmarek EB, Granatosky MC, Ross CF, Westneat MW. Suction feeding of West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens): An XROMM analysis of jaw mechanics, cranial kinesis, and hyoid mobility. Biol Open. 2022 09 15; 11(9). PMID: 36066131; PMCID: PMC9493713.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    7. Nash CM, Lungstrom LL, Hughes LC, Westneat MW. Phylogenomics and body shape morphometrics reveal recent diversification in the goatfishes (Syngnatharia: Mullidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2022 12; 177:107616. PMID: 35998799.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. Evans KM, Larouche O, West JL, Gartner SM, Westneat MW. Burrowing constrains patterns of skull shape evolution in wrasses. Evol Dev. 2023 01; 25(1):73-84. PMID: 35971630.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    9. Troyer EM, Betancur-R R, Hughes LC, Westneat M, White WT, Pogonoski JJ, Tyler JC, Baldwin CC, Brinkworth A, Arcila D, Carnevale G, Ortí G, Clavel J. The impact of paleoclimatic changes on body size evolution in marine fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 07 19; 119(29):e2122486119. PMID: 35858316; PMCID: PMC9308125.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. Whitlow KR, Ross CF, Gidmark NJ, Laurence-Chasen JD, Westneat MW. Suction feeding biomechanics of Polypterus bichir: investigating linkage mechanisms and the contributions of cranial kinesis to oral cavity volume change. J Exp Biol. 2022 02 01; 225(3). PMID: 35019979.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. McCord CL, Nash CM, Cooper WJ, Westneat MW. Phylogeny of the damselfishes (Pomacentridae) and patterns of asymmetrical diversification in body size and feeding ecology. PLoS One. 2021; 16(10):e0258889. PMID: 34705840; PMCID: PMC8550381.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Baumgart SL, Sereno PC, Westneat MW. Wing Shape in Waterbirds: Morphometric Patterns Associated with Behavior, Habitat, Migration, and Phylogenetic Convergence. Integr Org Biol. 2021; 3(1):obab011. PMID: 34381962; PMCID: PMC8341895.
      Citations: 2     
    13. Cohen KE, Weller HI, Westneat MW, Summers AP. The Evolutionary Continuum of Functional Homodonty to Heterodonty in the Dentition of Halichoeres Wrasses. Integr Comp Biol. 2020 Sep 24. PMID: 32970795.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    
    14. Aiello BR, Olsen AM, Mathis CE, Westneat MW, Hale ME. Pectoral fin kinematics and motor patterns are shaped by fin ray mechanosensation during steady swimming in Scarus quoyi. J Exp Biol. 2020 01 23; 223(Pt 2). PMID: 31862848.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Evans KM, Williams KL, Westneat MW. Do Coral Reefs Promote Morphological Diversification? Exploration of Habitat Effects on Labrid Pharyngeal Jaw Evolution in the Era of Big Data. Integr Comp Biol. 2019 09 01; 59(3):696-704. PMID: 31199432.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Lemberg JB, Shubin NH, Westneat MW. Feeding kinematics and morphology of the alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula, Lacépède, 1803). J Morphol. 2019 10; 280(10):1548-1570. PMID: 31385619.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    17. George AB, Westneat MW. Functional morphology of endurance swimming performance and gait transition strategies in balistoid fishes. J Exp Biol. 2019 04 24; 222(Pt 8). PMID: 30962280.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    18. Weller HI, Westneat MW. Quantitative color profiling of digital images with earth mover's distance using the R package colordistance. PeerJ. 2019; 7:e6398. PMID: 30775177; PMCID: PMC6371918.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    
    19. Tatom-Naecker TM, Westneat MW. Burrowing fishes: Kinematics, morphology and phylogeny of sand-diving wrasses (Labridae). J Fish Biol. 2018 Nov; 93(5):860-873. PMID: 30175499.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Aiello BR, Hardy AR, Westneat MW, Hale ME. Fins as Mechanosensors for Movement and Touch-Related Behaviors. Integr Comp Biol. 2018 11 01; 58(5):844-859. PMID: 29917043.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Aiello BR, Hardy AR, Cherian C, Olsen AM, Orsbon CP, Hale ME, Westneat MW. A comparison of pectoral fin ray morphology and its impact on fin ray flexural stiffness in labriform swimmers. J Morphol. 2018 08; 279(8):1031-1044. PMID: 29693259.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. Aiello BR, Hardy AR, Cherian C, Olsen AM, Ahn SE, Hale ME, Westneat MW. The relationship between pectoral fin ray stiffness and swimming behavior in Labridae: insights into design, performance and ecology. J Exp Biol. 2018 01 09; 221(Pt 1). PMID: 29162638.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Longo SJ, Faircloth BC, Meyer A, Westneat MW, Alfaro ME, Wainwright PC. Phylogenomic analysis of a rapid radiation of misfit fishes (Syngnathiformes) using ultraconserved elements. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017 08; 113:33-48. PMID: 28487262.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Aiello BR, Westneat MW, Hale ME. Mechanosensation is evolutionarily tuned to locomotor mechanics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Apr 25; 114(17):4459-4464. PMID: 28396411; PMCID: PMC5410822.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Conith AJ, Rice AN, Westneat MW, Cooper WJ, Carter CB. The evolution of jaw protrusion mechanics is tightly coupled to bentho-pelagic divergence in damselfishes (Pomacentridae). J Exp Biol. 2017 02 15; 220(Pt 4):652-666. PMID: 27913600.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Olsen AM, Westneat MW. Linkage mechanisms in the vertebrate skull: Structure and function of three-dimensional, parallel transmission systems. J Morphol. 2016 12; 277(12):1570-1583. PMID: 27577864.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. Swain TD, DuBois E, Gomes A, Stoyneva VP, Radosevich AJ, Henss J, Wagner ME, Derbas J, Grooms HW, Velazquez EM, Traub J, Kennedy BJ, Grigorescu AA, Westneat MW, Sanborn K, Levine S, Schick M, Parsons G, Biggs BC, Rogers JD, Backman V, Marcelino LA. Skeletal light-scattering accelerates bleaching response in reef-building corals. BMC Ecol. 2016 Mar 21; 16:10. PMID: 26996922; PMCID: PMC4800776.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. McCord CL, Westneat MW. Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae). J Morphol. 2016 06; 277(6):737-52. PMID: 26997352.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. McCord CL, Westneat MW. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of BMP4 in triggerfishes and filefishes (Balistoidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016 Jan; 94(Pt A):397-409. PMID: 26408967.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Westneat MW, Olsen AM. How fish power suction feeding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 14; 112(28):8525-6. PMID: 26150493; PMCID: PMC4507239.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Stoltzfus A, Lapp H, Matasci N, Deus H, Sidlauskas B, Zmasek CM, Vaidya G, Pontelli E, Cranston K, Vos R, Webb CO, Harmon LJ, Pirrung M, O'Meara B, Pennell MW, Mirarab S, Rosenberg MS, Balhoff JP, Bik HM, Heath TA, Midford PE, Brown JW, McTavish EJ, Sukumaran J, Westneat M, Alfaro ME, Steele A, Jordan G. Phylotastic! Making tree-of-life knowledge accessible, reusable and convenient. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013 May 13; 14:158. PMID: 23668630; PMCID: PMC3669619.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    
    32. Marcelino LA, Westneat MW, Stoyneva V, Henss J, Rogers JD, Radosevich A, Turzhitsky V, Siple M, Fang A, Swain TD, Fung J, Backman V. Modulation of light-enhancement to symbiotic algae by light-scattering in corals and evolutionary trends in bleaching. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61492. PMID: 23630594; PMCID: PMC3632607.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Drew J, Philipp C, Westneat MW. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e59855. PMID: 23573214; PMCID: PMC3616018.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Waters JS, Lee WK, Westneat MW, Socha JJ. Dynamics of tracheal compression in the horned passalus beetle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 Apr 15; 304(8):R621-7. PMID: 23427081.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Russell BC, Westneat MW. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species. Zootaxa. 2013; 3640:88-94. PMID: 26000407.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Drew JA, Buxman CL, Holmes DD, Mandecki JL, Mungkaje AJ, Richardson AC, Westneat MW. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea. BMC Ecol. 2012 Aug 01; 12:15. PMID: 22849436; PMCID: PMC3515464.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    37. Daly M, Herendeen PS, Guralnick RP, Westneat MW, McDade L. Systematics Agenda 2020: the mission evolves. Syst Biol. 2012 Jul; 61(4):549-52. PMID: 22492540; PMCID: PMC3376376.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    38. Greenlee KJ, Henry JR, Kirkton SD, Westneat MW, Fezzaa K, Lee WK, Harrison JF. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system: morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Nov; 297(5):R1343-50. PMID: 19710392; PMCID: PMC3774187.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    39. Cooper WJ, Westneat MW. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches. BMC Evol Biol. 2009 Jan 30; 9:24. PMID: 19183467; PMCID: PMC2654721.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    40. James Cooper W, Smith LL, Westneat MW. Exploring the radiation of a diverse reef fish family: phylogenetics of the damselfishes (Pomacentridae), with new classifications based on molecular analyses of all genera. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009 Jul; 52(1):1-16. PMID: 19135160.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Case JE, Westneat MW, Marshall CD. Feeding biomechanics of juvenile red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. J Exp Biol. 2008 Dec; 211(Pt 24):3826-35. PMID: 19043055.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Socha JJ, Lee WK, Harrison JF, Waters JS, Fezzaa K, Westneat MW. Correlated patterns of tracheal compression and convective gas exchange in a carabid beetle. J Exp Biol. 2008 Nov; 211(Pt 21):3409-20. PMID: 18931314.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Smith LL, Fessler JL, Alfaro ME, Streelman JT, Westneat MW. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of regulatory gene sequences in the parrotfishes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008 Oct; 49(1):136-52. PMID: 18621133; PMCID: PMC3418665.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Grubich JR, Rice AN, Westneat MW. Functional morphology of bite mechanics in the great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda). Zoology (Jena). 2008; 111(1):16-29. PMID: 18082386.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    45. Westneat MW, Socha JJ, Lee WK. Advances in biological structure, function, and physiology using synchrotron X-ray imaging*. Annu Rev Physiol. 2008; 70:119-42. PMID: 18271748.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Westneat MW. Zoology: twice bitten. Nature. 2007 Sep 06; 449(7158):33-4. PMID: 17805282.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    47. Fessler JL, Westneat MW. Molecular phylogenetics of the butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae): taxonomy and biogeography of a global coral reef fish family. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007 Oct; 45(1):50-68. PMID: 17625921.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Socha JJ, Westneat MW, Harrison JF, Waters JS, Lee WK. Real-time phase-contrast x-ray imaging: a new technique for the study of animal form and function. BMC Biol. 2007 Mar 01; 5:6. PMID: 17331247; PMCID: PMC1831761.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Anderson PS, Westneat MW. Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator. Biol Lett. 2007 Feb 22; 3(1):76-9. PMID: 17443970; PMCID: PMC2373817.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    50. Hale ME, Day RD, Thorsen DH, Westneat MW. Pectoral fin coordination and gait transitions in steadily swimming juvenile reef fishes. J Exp Biol. 2006 Oct; 209(Pt 19):3708-18. PMID: 16985188.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    51. Kammerer CF, Grande L, Westneat MW. Comparative and developmental functional morphology of the jaws of living and fossil gars (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae). J Morphol. 2006 Sep; 267(9):1017-31. PMID: 15593308.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Grubich JR, Westneat MW. Four-bar linkage modelling in teleost pharyngeal jaws: computer simulations of bite kinetics. J Anat. 2006 Jul; 209(1):79-92. PMID: 16822272; PMCID: PMC2100308.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Rice AN, Westneat MW. Coordination of feeding, locomotor and visual systems in parrotfishes (Teleostei: Labridae). J Exp Biol. 2005 Sep; 208(Pt 18):3503-18. PMID: 16155223.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Westneat MW, Alfaro ME. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 Aug; 36(2):370-90. PMID: 15955516.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Westneat MW, Alfaro ME, Wainwright PC, Bellwood DR, Grubich JR, Fessler JL, Clements KD, Smith LL. Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae. Proc Biol Sci. 2005 May 22; 272(1567):993-1000. PMID: 16024356; PMCID: PMC1599880.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Thorsen DH, Westneat MW. Diversity of pectoral fin structure and function in fishes with labriform propulsion. J Morphol. 2005 Feb; 263(2):133-50. PMID: 15549721.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    57. Westneat MW. Evolution of levers and linkages in the feeding mechanisms of fishes. Integr Comp Biol. 2004 Nov; 44(5):378-89. PMID: 21676723.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    
    58. Mabuchi K, Miya M, Satoh TP, Westneat MW, Nishida M. Gene rearrangements and evolution of tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae). J Mol Evol. 2004 Sep; 59(3):287-97. PMID: 15553084.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Clements KD, Alfaro ME, Fessler JL, Westneat MW. Relationships of the temperate Australasian labrid fish tribe Odacini (Perciformes; Teleostei). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004 Aug; 32(2):575-87. PMID: 15223039.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    60. Westneat MW. A biomechanical model for analysis of muscle force, power output and lower jaw motion in fishes. J Theor Biol. 2003 Aug 07; 223(3):269-81. PMID: 12850448.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    61. Westneat MW, Betz O, Blob RW, Fezzaa K, Cooper WJ, Lee WK. Tracheal respiration in insects visualized with synchrotron x-ray imaging. Science. 2003 Jan 24; 299(5606):558-60. PMID: 12543973.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Westneat MW, Sturmbauer C, Hanel R. Phylogenetic relationships, evolution of broodcare behavior, and geographic speciation in the wrasse tribe Labrini. J Mol Evol. 2002 Dec; 55(6):776-89. PMID: 12486536.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    63. Walker JA, Westneat MW. Kinematics, dynamics, and energetics of rowing and flapping propulsion in fishes. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Nov; 42(5):1032-43. PMID: 21680385.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    
    64. Ramamurti R, Sandberg WC, Walker JA, Westneat MW, Ramamurti R, Sandberg WC, Walker JA, Westneat MW. Fluid dynamics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse: three-dimensional unsteady computations with fin deformation. J Exp Biol. 2002 Oct; 205(Pt 19):2997-3008. PMID: 12200403.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    65. Streelman JT, Alfaro M, Westneat MW, Bellwood DR, Karl SA. Evolutionary history of the parrotfishes: biogeography, ecomorphology, and comparative diversity. Evolution. 2002 May; 56(5):961-71. PMID: 12093031.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Hale ME, Long JH, McHenry MJ, Westneat MW. Evolution of behavior and neural control of the fast-start escape response. Evolution. 2002 May; 56(5):993-1007. PMID: 12093034.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    67. Walker JA, Westneat MW, Walker JA, Westneat MW. Performance limits of labriform propulsion and correlates with fin shape and motion. J Exp Biol. 2002 Jan; 205(Pt 2):177-87. PMID: 11821484.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    68. Pace CM, Blob RW, Westneat MW. Comparative kinematics of the forelimb during swimming in red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) and spiny softshell (Apalone spinifera) turtles. J Exp Biol. 2001 Oct; 204(Pt 19):3261-71. PMID: 11606600.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    69. Ferry-Graham LA, Wainwright PC, Westneat MW, Bellwood DR. Modulation of prey capture kinematics in the cheeklined wrasse Oxycheilinus digrammus (Teleostei: Labridae). J Exp Zool. 2001 Jul 01; 290(2):88-100. PMID: 11471138.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Walker JA, Westneat MW. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying. Proc Biol Sci. 2000 Sep 22; 267(1455):1875-81. PMID: 11052539; PMCID: PMC1690750.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    71. Alfaro M, Westneat MW. Motor patterns of herbivorous feeding: electromyographic analysis of biting in the parrotfishes Cetoscarus bicolor and Scarus iseri. Brain Behav Evol. 1999 Oct; 54(4):205-22. PMID: 10592383.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Swithers SE, Westneat MW, Hall WG. Electromyographic analysis of oral habituation in rat pups. Physiol Behav. 1998 Jan; 63(2):197-203. PMID: 9423959.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. Hoese WJ, Westneat MW. Biomechanics of cranial kinesis in birds: Testing linkage models in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). J Morphol. 1996 Mar; 227(3):305-320. PMID: 29852573.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    
    74. Westneat MW, Long JH, Hoese W, Nowicki S. Kinematics of birdsong: functional correlation of cranial movements and acoustic features in sparrows. J Exp Biol. 1993 Sep; 182:147-71. PMID: 8228778.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    75. Westneat MW, Hoese W, Pell CA, Wainwright SA. The horizontal septum: Mechanisms of force transfer in locomotion of scombrid fishes (Scombridae, Perciformes). J Morphol. 1993 Aug; 217(2):183-204. PMID: 29865470.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    
    76. Westneat MW, Hall WG. Ontogeny of feeding motor patterns in infant rats: an electromyographic analysis of suckling and chewing. Behav Neurosci. 1992 Jun; 106(3):539-54. PMID: 1616619.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. Westneat MW. Feeding mechanics of teleost fishes (Labridae; Perciformes): A test of four-bar linkage models. J Morphol. 1990 Sep; 205(3):269-295. PMID: 29865760.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    
    78. Westneat MW, Wainwright PC. Feeding mechanism of Epibulus insidiator (Labridae; Teleostei): Evolution of a novel functional system. J Morphol. 1989 Nov; 202(2):129-150. PMID: 29865677.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    
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