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Michaela Gack

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentMicrobiology
AddressChicago IL 60637
Phone+1 773-834-5272
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Understanding host-virus interactions is an essential step in developing safe and effective antimicrobials against existing and newly emerging pathogens. The early detection of invading viruses by the host depends on a limited number of specific receptors that detect viral patterns and activate signaling cascades, thereby triggering interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral defense mechanisms. Intracellular innate immune receptors, such as RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and the intracellular viral DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16, detect a variety of RNA and DNA viruses including influenza virus, measles virus, dengue virus and herpesviruses. In addition, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family play a major role in the antiviral host response.

    Research in the Gack laboratory seeks a better understanding of the cell-intrinsic mechanisms underlying the host innate immune response against viral infections. Another area of our research focuses on the detailed mechanisms by which viral pathogens – influenza viruses, measles virus, dengue virus and herpesviruses – suppress the innate immune system. The Gack laboratory uses an integrative approach that combines RNAi screens and proteomics with molecular, biochemical, and cell-biological approaches as well as viral infection studies including reverse genetics systems for the generation of recombinant mutant viruses.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, GermanyGerman Diplom (BS and MSc equivalent)2005Molecular Medicine
    Harvard Medical School and FAU Erlangen-NurembergPhD2008Virology
    Collapse awards and honors
    1998Karl von Frisch Prize , German Biology Society
    2007Millipore Young Cell Signaler Award, Millipore
    2009Otto Westphal Prize, German Society for Immunology
    2009Robert Koch Postdoctoral Prize, Robert Koch Foundation, Germany
    2009GE & Science Prize for Young Life Scientists, GE & Science
    2011Fast Track Fellowship , Robert Bosch Foundation
    2011Selected as one of “100 Women of Tomorrow” , President of Germany
    2012William F. Milton Fund Award, Milton Foundation
    2013Stewart Trust Fellow, The Alexander & Margaret Stewart Trust Foundation
    2013Ann Palmenberg Junior Investigator Award, American Society for Virology
    2013Junior Investigator Award, European Society for Virology
    2013The Christina Fleischmann Award to Young Women Investigators, International Cytokine and Interferon Society
    2013 - 2015‘Top 40 under 40’ Scientist, Germany
    2014Merck Irving S. Sigal Memorial Award, American Society for Microbiology
    2015John and Virginia Kaneb Award
    2017Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise in Biomedical Science, Vilcek Foundation
    2017‘Top 10 under 40’ list in Biopharma and Business, US

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Phan HV, van Gent M, Drayman N, Basu A, Gack MU, Tay S. High-throughput RNA sequencing of paraformaldehyde-fixed single cells. Nat Commun. 2021 09 24; 12(1):5636. PMID: 34561439.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Thoma-Kress AK, Desrosiers RC, Gack MU, Jung JU, Überla K, Kirchhoff F. Biographical Feature: Bernhard Fleckenstein. J Virol. 2021 08 10; 95(17):e0089621. PMID: 34191579.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Hou Y, Zhou Y, Gack MU, Lathia JD, Kallianpur A, Mehra R, Chan TA, Jung JU, Jehi L, Eng C, Cheng F. Multimodal single-cell omics analysis identifies epithelium-immune cell interactions and immune vulnerability associated with sex differences in COVID-19. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2021 07 30; 6(1):292. PMID: 34330889.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Chiang C, Dvorkin S, Chiang JJ, Potter RB, Gack MU. The Small t Antigen of JC Virus Antagonizes RIG-I-Mediated Innate Immunity by Inhibiting TRIM25's RNA Binding Ability. mBio. 2021 04 13; 12(2). PMID: 33849980.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mou H, Quinlan BD, Peng H, Liu G, Guo Y, Peng S, Zhang L, Davis-Gardner ME, Gardner MR, Crynen G, DeVaux LB, Voo ZX, Bailey CC, Alpert MD, Rader C, Gack MU, Choe H, Farzan M. Mutations derived from horseshoe bat ACE2 orthologs enhance ACE2-Fc neutralization of SARS-CoV-2. PLoS Pathog. 2021 04; 17(4):e1009501. PMID: 33836016.
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    6. Liu X, Ma Y, Voss K, van Gent M, Chan YK, Gack MU, Gale M, He B. The herpesvirus accessory protein ?134.5 facilitates viral replication by disabling mitochondrial translocation of RIG-I. PLoS Pathog. 2021 03; 17(3):e1009446. PMID: 33770145.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Liu G, Lee JH, Parker ZM, Acharya D, Chiang JJ, van Gent M, Riedl W, Davis-Gardner ME, Wies E, Chiang C, Gack MU. ISG15-dependent activation of the sensor MDA5 is antagonized by the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease to evade host innate immunity. Nat Microbiol. 2021 04; 6(4):467-478. PMID: 33727702.
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    8. van Gent M, Reich A, Velu SE, Gack MU. Nonsense-mediated decay controls the reactivation of the oncogenic herpesviruses EBV and KSHV. PLoS Biol. 2021 02; 19(2):e3001097. PMID: 33596193.
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    9. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, Abeliovich H, Abildgaard MH, Abudu YP, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adamopoulos IE, Adeli K, Adolph TE, Adornetto A, Aflaki E, Agam G, Agarwal A, Aggarwal BB, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Agrewala JN, Agrotis A, Aguilar PV, Ahmad ST, Ahmed ZM, Ahumada-Castro U, Aits S, Aizawa S, Akkoc Y, Akoumianaki T, Akpinar HA, Al-Abd AM, Al-Akra L, Al-Gharaibeh A, Alaoui-Jamali MA, Alberti S, Alcocer-Gómez E, Alessandri C, Ali M, Alim Al-Bari MA, Aliwaini S, Alizadeh J, Almacellas E, Almasan A, Alonso A, Alonso GD, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Álvarez ÉMC, Alves S, Alves da Costa C, Alzaharna MM, Amadio M, Amantini C, Amaral C, Ambrosio S, Amer AO, Ammanathan V, An Z, Andersen SU, Andrabi SA, Andrade-Silva M, Andres AM, Angelini S, Ann D, Anozie UC, Ansari MY, Antas P, Antebi A, Antón Z, Anwar T, Apetoh L, Apostolova N, Araki T, Araki Y, Arasaki K, Araújo WL, Araya J, Arden C, Arévalo MA, Arguelles S, Arias E, Arikkath J, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong-James D, Arnauné-Pelloquin L, Aroca A, Arroyo DS, Arsov I, Artero R, Asaro DML, Aschner M, Ashrafizadeh M, Ashur-Fabian O, Atanasov AG, Au AK, Auberger P, Auner HW, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Ávalos Y, Aveic S, Aveleira CA, Avin-Wittenberg T, Aydin Y, Ayton S, Ayyadevara S, Azzopardi M, Baba M, Backer JM, Backues SK, Bae DH, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek A, Baek SH, Baek SH, Bagetta G, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai X, Bai Y, Bairagi N, Baksi S, Balbi T, Baldari CT, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Ballester M, Balazadeh S, Balzan R, Bandopadhyay R, Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Bánréti Á, Bao Y, Baptista MS, Baracca A, Barbati C, Bargiela A, Barilà D, Barlow PG, Barmada SJ, Barreiro E, Barreto GE, Bartek J, Bartel B, Bartolome A, Barve GR, Basagoudanavar SH, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Basu A, Batoko H, Batten I, Baulieu EE, Baumgarner BL, Bayry J, Beale R, Beau I, Beaumatin F, Bechara LRG, Beck GR, Beers MF, Begun J, Behrends C, Behrens GMN, Bei R, Bejarano E, Bel S, Behl C, Belaid A, Belgareh-Touzé N, Bellarosa C, Belleudi F, Belló Pérez M, Bello-Morales R, Beltran JSO, Beltran S, Benbrook DM, Bendorius M, Benitez BA, Benito-Cuesta I, Bensalem J, Berchtold MW, Berezowska S, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Bergmann A, Berliocchi L, Berlioz-Torrent C, Bernard A, Berthoux L, Besirli CG, Besteiro S, Betin VM, Beyaert R, Bezbradica JS, Bhaskar K, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhuiyan MS, Bhutia SK, Bi L, Bi X, Biden TJ, Bijian K, Billes VA, Binart N, Bincoletto C, Birgisdottir AB, Bjorkoy G, Blanco G, Blas-Garcia A, Blasiak J, Blomgran R, Blomgren K, Blum JS, Boada-Romero E, Boban M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boeuf P, Boland B, Bomont P, Bonaldo P, Bonam SR, Bonfili L, Bonifacino JS, Boone BA, Bootman MD, Bordi M, Borner C, Bornhauser BC, Borthakur G, Bosch J, Bose S, Botana LM, Botas J, Boulanger CM, Boulton ME, Bourdenx M, Bourgeois B, Bourke NM, Bousquet G, Boya P, Bozhkov PV, Bozi LHM, Bozkurt TO, Brackney DE, Brandts CH, Braun RJ, Braus GH, Bravo-Sagua R, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brest P, Bringer MA, Briones-Herrera A, Broaddus VC, Brodersen P, Brodsky JL, Brody SL, Bronson PG, Bronstein JM, Brown CN, Brown RE, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bruno D, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Bucci C, Buchrieser C, Bueno M, Buitrago-Molina LE, Buraschi S, Buch S, Buchan JR, Buckingham EM, Budak H, Budini M, Bultynck G, Burada F, Burgoyne JR, Burón MI, Bustos V, Büttner S, Butturini E, Byrd A, Cabas I, Cabrera-Benitez S, Cadwell K, Cai J, Cai L, Cai Q, Cairó M, Calbet JA, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA, Call JA, Calvani R, Calvo AC, Calvo-Rubio Barrera M, Camara NO, Camonis JH, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell EM, Campbell-Valois FX, Campello S, Campesi I, Campos JC, Camuzard O, Cancino J, Candido de Almeida D, Canesi L, Caniggia I, Canonico B, Cantí C, Cao B, Caraglia M, Caramés B, Carchman EH, Cardenal-Muñoz E, Cardenas C, Cardenas L, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carle GF, Carleton G, Carloni S, Carmona-Gutierrez D, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1. Autophagy. 2021 Jan; 17(1):1-382. PMID: 33634751.
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    10. Chiang C, Liu G, Gack MU. Viral Evasion of RIG-I-Like Receptor-Mediated Immunity through Dysregulation of Ubiquitination and ISGylation. Viruses. 2021 01 26; 13(2). PMID: 33530371.
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    11. Van Phan H, van Gent M, Drayman N, Basu A, Gack MU, Tay S. Fixed single-cell RNA sequencing for understanding virus infection and host response. bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 21. PMID: 32995793.
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    12. Han YJ, Zhang J, Lee JH, Mason JM, Karginova O, Yoshimatsu TF, Hao Q, Hurley I, Brunet LP, Prat A, Prasanth KV, Gack MU, Olopade OI. The BRCA1 Pseudogene Negatively Regulates Antitumor Responses through Inhibition of Innate Immune Defense Mechanisms. Cancer Res. 2021 03 15; 81(6):1540-1551. PMID: 33472891.
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    13. Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, Mehra R, Kallianpur A, Culver DA, Gack MU, Farha S, Zein J, Comhair S, Fiocchi C, Stappenbeck T, Chan T, Eng C, Jung JU, Jehi L, Erzurum S, Cheng F. A network medicine approach to investigation and population-based validation of disease manifestations and drug repurposing for COVID-19. PLoS Biol. 2020 11; 18(11):e3000970. PMID: 33156843.
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    14. Liu G, Lee JH, Parker ZM, Acharya D, Chiang JJ, van Gent M, Riedl W, Davis-Gardner ME, Wies E, Chiang C, Gack MU. ISG15-dependent Activation of the RNA Sensor MDA5 and its Antagonism by the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease. bioRxiv. 2020 Oct 27. PMID: 33140045.
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    15. Koepke L, Gack MU, Sparrer KM. The antiviral activities of TRIM proteins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2021 02; 59:50-57. PMID: 32829025.
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    16. Liu G, Gack MU. Distinct and Orchestrated Functions of RNA Sensors in Innate Immunity. Immunity. 2020 07 14; 53(1):26-42. PMID: 32668226.
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    17. Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, Kallianpur A, Zein J, Culver DA, Farha S, Comhair S, Fiocchi C, Gack MU, Mehra R, Stappenbeck T, Chan T, Eng C, Jung JU, Jehi L, Erzurum S, Cheng F. A Network Medicine Approach to Investigation and Population-based Validation of Disease Manifestations and Drug Repurposing for COVID-19. ChemRxiv. 2020 Jul 02. PMID: 32676577.
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    18. Acharya D, Liu G, Gack MU. Dysregulation of type I interferon responses in COVID-19. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 07; 20(7):397-398. PMID: 32457522.
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    19. Rehwinkel J, Gack MU. RIG-I-like receptors: their regulation and roles in RNA sensing. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 09; 20(9):537-551. PMID: 32203325.
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    20. Serman TM, Gack MU. Evasion of Innate and Intrinsic Antiviral Pathways by the Zika Virus. Viruses. 2019 10 22; 11(10). PMID: 31652496.
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    21. Riedl W, Acharya D, Lee JH, Liu G, Serman T, Chiang C, Chan YK, Diamond MS, Gack MU. Zika Virus NS3 Mimics a Cellular 14-3-3-Binding Motif to Antagonize RIG-I- and MDA5-Mediated Innate Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 10 09; 26(4):493-503.e6. PMID: 31600501.
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    22. Liu X, Matrenec R, Gack MU, He B. Disassembly of the TRIM23-TBK1 Complex by the Us11 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Impairs Autophagy. J Virol. 2019 09 01; 93(17). PMID: 31189704.
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    23. Lee JH, Chiang C, Gack MU. Endogenous Nucleic Acid Recognition by RIG-I-Like Receptors and cGAS. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2019 08; 39(8):450-458. PMID: 31066607.
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    24. Serman TM, Gack MU. FBXO38 Drives PD-1 to Destruction. Trends Immunol. 2019 02; 40(2):81-83. PMID: 30609969.
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    25. Full F, van Gent M, Sparrer KMJ, Chiang C, Zurenski MA, Scherer M, Brockmeyer NH, Heinzerling L, Stürzl M, Korn K, Stamminger T, Ensser A, Gack MU. Centrosomal protein TRIM43 restricts herpesvirus infection by regulating nuclear lamina integrity. Nat Microbiol. 2019 01; 4(1):164-176. PMID: 30420784.
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    26. Riedl W, Gack MU. Dusting for flu's fingerprints. Nat Microbiol. 2018 11; 3(11):1196-1197. PMID: 30356151.
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    27. Sanchez JG, Sparrer KMJ, Chiang C, Reis RA, Chiang JJ, Zurenski MA, Wan Y, Gack MU, Pornillos O. TRIM25 Binds RNA to Modulate Cellular Anti-viral Defense. J Mol Biol. 2018 12 07; 430(24):5280-5293. PMID: 30342007.
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    28. van Gent M, Gack MU. Viral Anti-CRISPR Tactics: No Success without Sacrifice. Immunity. 2018 09 18; 49(3):391-393. PMID: 30231980.
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    29. van Gent M, Sparrer KMJ, Gack MU. TRIM Proteins and Their Roles in Antiviral Host Defenses. Annu Rev Virol. 2018 09 29; 5(1):385-405. PMID: 29949725.
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    30. Chiang C, Pauli EK, Biryukov J, Feister KF, Meng M, White EA, Münger K, Howley PM, Meyers C, Gack MU. The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein Targets USP15 and TRIM25 To Suppress RIG-I-Mediated Innate Immune Signaling. J Virol. 2018 03 15; 92(6). PMID: 29263274.
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    31. Sparrer KMJ, Gack MU. TRIM proteins: New players in virus-induced autophagy. PLoS Pathog. 2018 02; 14(2):e1006787. PMID: 29389992.
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    32. D'Cruz AA, Kershaw NJ, Hayman TJ, Linossi EM, Chiang JJ, Wang MK, Dagley LF, Kolesnik TB, Zhang JG, Masters SL, Griffin MDW, Gack MU, Murphy JM, Nicola NA, Babon JJ, Nicholson SE. Identification of a second binding site on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain. Biochem J. 2018 01 23; 475(2):429-440. PMID: 29259080.
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    33. Chiang JJ, Sparrer KMJ, van Gent M, Lässig C, Huang T, Osterrieder N, Hopfner KP, Gack MU. Viral unmasking of cellular 5S rRNA pseudogene transcripts induces RIG-I-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 2018 Jan; 19(1):53-62. PMID: 29180807.
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    34. Ma Q, Ruan H, Peng L, Zhang M, Gack MU, Yao WD. Proteasome-independent polyubiquitin linkage regulates synapse scaffolding, efficacy, and plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 10 10; 114(41):E8760-E8769. PMID: 28973854.
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    35. Sparrer KMJ, Gableske S, Zurenski MA, Parker ZM, Full F, Baumgart GJ, Kato J, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Liang C, Pornillos O, Moss J, Vaughan M, Gack MU. TRIM23 mediates virus-induced autophagy via activation of TBK1. Nat Microbiol. 2017 Nov; 2(11):1543-1557. PMID: 28871090.
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    36. Gack MU. What viruses can teach us about the human immune system. PLoS Pathog. 2017 07; 13(7):e1006364. PMID: 28704547.
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    37. van Gent M, Gack MU. Viral pathogenesis: Dengue virus takes on cGAS. Nat Microbiol. 2017 03 27; 2:17050. PMID: 28346454.
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    38. Chiang C, Gack MU. Post-translational Control of Intracellular Pathogen Sensing Pathways. Trends Immunol. 2017 01; 38(1):39-52. PMID: 27863906.
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    39. Gack MU, Diamond MS. Innate immune escape by Dengue and West Nile viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2016 10; 20:119-128. PMID: 27792906.
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    40. Sanchez JG, Chiang JJ, Sparrer KMJ, Alam SL, Chi M, Roganowicz MD, Sankaran B, Gack MU, Pornillos O. Mechanism of TRIM25 Catalytic Activation in the Antiviral RIG-I Pathway. Cell Rep. 2016 08 02; 16(5):1315-1325. PMID: 27425606.
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    41. Chan YK, Gack MU. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 06; 14(6):360-73. PMID: 27174148.
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    42. Chan YK, Gack MU. A phosphomimetic-based mechanism of dengue virus to antagonize innate immunity. Nat Immunol. 2016 May; 17(5):523-30. PMID: 26998762.
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    43. Chiang JJ, Gack MU. Reading the fine print: sequence-specific activation of cGAS. Nat Immunol. 2015 Oct; 16(10):1009-10. PMID: 26382862.
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    44. Full F, Gack MU. Delicate coordination of TRIM21's dual activity in virus neutralization and signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 11; 112(32):9797-8. PMID: 26240368.
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    45. Sparrer KM, Gack MU. Intracellular detection of viral nucleic acids. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015 Aug; 26:1-9. PMID: 25795286.
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    46. Chan YK, Gack MU. RIG-I works double duty. . 2015 Mar 11; 17(3):285-287. PMID: 25766287.
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    47. Davis ME, Gack MU. Ubiquitination in the antiviral immune response. Virology. 2015 May; 479-480:52-65. PMID: 25753787.
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    48. Chan YK, Gack MU. RIG-I-like receptor regulation in virus infection and immunity. Curr Opin Virol. 2015 Jun; 12:7-14. PMID: 25644461.
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    49. Carocci M, Hinshaw SM, Rodgers MA, Villareal VA, Burri DJ, Pilankatta R, Maharaj NP, Gack MU, Stavale EJ, Warfield KL, Yang PL. The bioactive lipid 4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide inhibits flavivirus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jan; 59(1):85-95. PMID: 25313218.
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    50. Mesman AW, Zijlstra-Willems EM, Kaptein TM, de Swart RL, Davis ME, Ludlow M, Duprex WP, Gack MU, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TB. Measles virus suppresses RIG-I-like receptor activation in dendritic cells via DC-SIGN-mediated inhibition of PP1 phosphatases. . 2014 Jul 09; 16(1):31-42. PMID: 25011106.
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    51. Davis ME, Wang MK, Rennick LJ, Full F, Gableske S, Mesman AW, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TB, Duprex WP, Gack MU. Antagonism of the phosphatase PP1 by the measles virus V protein is required for innate immune escape of MDA5. . 2014 Jul 09; 16(1):19-30. PMID: 25011105.
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    52. Chiang JJ, Davis ME, Gack MU. Regulation of RIG-I-like receptor signaling by host and viral proteins. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2014 Oct; 25(5):491-505. PMID: 25023063.
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    53. Verrier ER, Gack MU, Baumert TF. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate/adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS), innate immune responses, and viral hepatitis. Hepatology. 2014 Sep; 60(3):1098-100. PMID: 24753097.
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    54. Full F, Gack MU. Prostaglandin E2: the villain in the host response to influenza virus. Immunity. 2014 Apr 17; 40(4):453-4. PMID: 24745327.
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    55. Gack MU. Mechanisms of RIG-I-like receptor activation and manipulation by viral pathogens. J Virol. 2014 May; 88(10):5213-6. PMID: 24623415.
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    56. Pauli EK, Chan YK, Davis ME, Gableske S, Wang MK, Feister KF, Gack MU. The ubiquitin-specific protease USP15 promotes RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by deubiquitylating TRIM25. Sci Signal. 2014 Jan 07; 7(307):ra3. PMID: 24399297.
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    57. D'Cruz AA, Kershaw NJ, Chiang JJ, Wang MK, Nicola NA, Babon JJ, Gack MU, Nicholson SE. Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling. Biochem J. 2013 Dec 01; 456(2):231-40. PMID: 24015671.
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    58. Wies E, Wang MK, Maharaj NP, Chen K, Zhou S, Finberg RW, Gack MU. Dephosphorylation of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 by the phosphatase PP1 is essential for innate immune signaling. Immunity. 2013 Mar 21; 38(3):437-49. PMID: 23499489.
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    59. Rajsbaum R, Albrecht RA, Wang MK, Maharaj NP, Versteeg GA, Nistal-Villán E, García-Sastre A, Gack MU. Species-specific inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and IFN induction by the influenza A virus NS1 protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(11):e1003059. PMID: 23209422.
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    60. Maharaj NP, Wies E, Stoll A, Gack MU. Conventional protein kinase C-a (PKC-a) and PKC-ß negatively regulate RIG-I antiviral signal transduction. J Virol. 2012 Feb; 86(3):1358-71. PMID: 22114345.
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    61. Gack MU. TRIMming Flavivirus infection. . 2011 Sep 15; 10(3):175-7. PMID: 21925103.
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    62. Inn KS, Gack MU, Tokunaga F, Shi M, Wong LY, Iwai K, Jung JU. Linear ubiquitin assembly complex negatively regulates RIG-I- and TRIM25-mediated type I interferon induction. Mol Cell. 2011 Feb 04; 41(3):354-65. PMID: 21292167.
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    63. Nistal-Villán E, Gack MU, Martínez-Delgado G, Maharaj NP, Inn KS, Yang H, Wang R, Aggarwal AK, Jung JU, García-Sastre A. Negative role of RIG-I serine 8 phosphorylation in the regulation of interferon-beta production. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 25; 285(26):20252-61. PMID: 20406818.
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    64. Gack MU, Nistal-Villán E, Inn KS, García-Sastre A, Jung JU. Phosphorylation-mediated negative regulation of RIG-I antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010 Apr; 84(7):3220-9. PMID: 20071582.
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    65. Gack MU, Albrecht RA, Urano T, Inn KS, Huang IC, Carnero E, Farzan M, Inoue S, Jung JU, García-Sastre A. Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I. . 2009 May 08; 5(5):439-49. PMID: 19454348.
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    66. Myong S, Cui S, Cornish PV, Kirchhofer A, Gack MU, Jung JU, Hopfner KP, Ha T. Cytosolic viral sensor RIG-I is a 5'-triphosphate-dependent translocase on double-stranded RNA. Science. 2009 Feb 20; 323(5917):1070-4. PMID: 19119185.
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    67. Gack MU, Kirchhofer A, Shin YC, Inn KS, Liang C, Cui S, Myong S, Ha T, Hopfner KP, Jung JU. Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 28; 105(43):16743-8. PMID: 18948594.
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    68. Liang C, Lee JS, Inn KS, Gack MU, Li Q, Roberts EA, Vergne I, Deretic V, Feng P, Akazawa C, Jung JU. Beclin1-binding UVRAG targets the class C Vps complex to coordinate autophagosome maturation and endocytic trafficking. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Jul; 10(7):776-87. PMID: 18552835.
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    69. Shin YC, Joo CH, Gack MU, Lee HR, Jung JU. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral IFN regulatory factor 3 stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha to induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15; 68(6):1751-9. PMID: 18339855.
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    70. Joo CH, Shin YC, Gack M, Wu L, Levy D, Jung JU. Inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated interferon signal transduction by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral IRF homolog vIRF3. J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(15):8282-92. PMID: 17522209.
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    71. Gack MU, Shin YC, Joo CH, Urano T, Liang C, Sun L, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Chen Z, Inoue S, Jung JU. TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity. Nature. 2007 Apr 19; 446(7138):916-920. PMID: 17392790.
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    72. Heck E, Friedrich U, Gack MU, Lengenfelder D, Schmidt M, Müller-Fleckenstein I, Fleckenstein B, Ensser A, Biesinger B. Growth transformation of human T cells by herpesvirus saimiri requires multiple Tip-Lck interaction motifs. J Virol. 2006 Oct; 80(20):9934-42. PMID: 17005671.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Deichen JT, Prante O, Gack M, Schmiedehausen K, Kuwert T. Uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human monocyte-macrophages in vitro. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2003 Feb; 30(2):267-73. PMID: 12552345.
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