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Chien-Min Kao

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentRadiology
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Kao is Associate Professor of Radiology and Medical Physics. His research centers on developing novel detector technologies and employing them to build practical, high performant PET systems by integrating them with advanced data processing and image reconstruction.

    Dr. Kao's lab pioneered the use of waveform sampling for PET detectors. His lab invents a voltage-based sampling method for PET data acquisition called MVT (multi-voltage threshold) that provides a practical solution to digitizing fast signals generated by modern time-of-flight (TOF) PET detectors. It is used in conjunction with a novel multiplexing readout method for silicon photomultipliers employing tranmission lines to produce highly compact and functionally modularized PET and TOF-PET detectors. Dr. Kao is interested in using the detectors to develop organ-specific PET imagers for humans, including both dedicated systems and inserts for simultaneous PET/MRI. He is also developing flat-panel TOF PET detectors, and the supporting software platform, to allow rapid configuration and development of human PET systems.

    Dr. Kao is the faculty co-director of the PET/CT/SPECT facility of the BSD Integrated Small Animal Imaging Research Resource, and actively collaborates with Dr. Chin-Tu Chen and other investigators in using PET for conducting basic and translational biomedical research, including the development of new drugs/treatments for cancer and neurological and cardiological diseases. Therefore, he is also interested in developing artificial-intelligence based methods for registering multi-modality and longitudinal studies, for analyzing static and dynamic data with compartmental modeling, and for making discoveries from population studies.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanBSEE06/1984Electrical Engineering
    University of Chicago, Chicago, IllinoisPhD05/1997Medical Physics

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Kim H, Chen CT, Eclov N, Hua Y, Xi D, Xie Q, Kao CM. Design, evaluation and initial imaging results of an unshielded PET insert based on strip-line readout for simultaneous PET/MRI. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2019; (submitted).
    2. D’Ascenzo N, Antonecchia E, Gao M, Zhang X, Baumgartner G, Brensing A, Li Z, Liu Q, Rose G, Shi X, Zhang B, Kao CM, Ni J, Xie Q. Evaluation of a digital brain Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on the Plug&Imaging sensor technology. IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences. 2019; (submitted).
    3. Zhang Z, Rose S, Ye J, Perkins A, Chen B, Kao CM, Sidky E, Tung CH, Pan X. Optimization-based image reconstruction from list-mode TOF-PET data. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2018; 65:936-946.
    4. Jiang Y, Li X, Liu B, Yi J, Fang Y, Shi F, Gao X, Sudzilovsky E, Parameswaran R, Koehler K, Nair V, Yue J, Guo K, Fang Y, Tsai HM, Freyermuth G, Wong RCS, Kao CM, Nicholls A, Wu X, Shepherd GMG, Tian B. Rational design of silicon structures for optically-controlled multiscale biointerfaces. Nature Biomedical Engineering. 2018; 2:508–521.
    5. Tsai HM, Souris JS, Kim H, Cheng SH, Chen CT, Lo LW, Chen L, Kao CM. Note: Rapid measurement of fluorescence lifetimes using SiPM detection and waveform sampling. Review of Scientific Instruments. 2017; 88:096107.
    6. Xi D, Liu X, Zeng C, Liu W, Li Y, Hua Y, Mei X, Kim H, Xiao P, Kao CM, Xie Q. Modularized compact positron emission tomography detector for rapid system development. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Jan; 4(1):011006. PMID: 28018941.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Zhang Z, Ye J, Chen B, Perkins AE, Rose S, Sidky EY, Kao CM, Xia D, Tung CH, Pan X. Investigation of optimization-based reconstruction with an image-total-variation constraint in PET. Phys Med Biol. 2016 08 21; 61(16):6055-84. PMID: 27452653.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Kim H, Chen CT, Eclov N, Ronzhin A, Murat P, Ramberg E, Los S, Kao CM. A silicon photo-multiplier signal readout using transmission-line and waveform sampling for positron emission tomography. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2016; 830:119-129.
    9. Chen CT and Kao CM. Radiation Detectors for Medical Imaging. JS Iwanczyk ed. Radiation detection in SPECT and PET. 2016; 193-219.
    10. Zhang Z, Ye J, Chen B, Perkins AM, Trindade A, Rodrigue P, Kao CM, Sidky E, Pan X. Preliminary Investigation of PET Image Reconstruction from Reduced Data by Constrained-TV-Minimization. 2015 International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 2015; 345-348.
    11. Rose S, Sidky E, Kao CM, Pan X. Investigation of Convex Priors in List Mode TOF PET Reconstruction with the Entropic Mirror Descent Algorithm. 2015 International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 2015; 554-557.
    12. Zhu J, Wang L, Kao CM, Kim H, Xie Q. Performance evaluation of the Trans-PET BioCaliburn® SH System. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2015; 777:148-153.
    13. Kim H, Chen CT, Eclov N, Ronzhin A, Murat P, Ramberg E, Los S, Wyrwicz AM, Li L, Kao CM. A feasibility study of a PET/MRI insert detector using strip-line and waveform sampling data. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2015; 784:557-564.
    14. Wang L, Zhu J, Liang X, Niu M, Wu X, Kao CM, Kim H, Xie Q. Performance evaluation of the Trans-PET® BioCaliburn® LH system: a large FOV small-animal PET system. Phys Med Biol. 2015 Jan 07; 60(1):137-50. PMID: 25479202.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Liu J, Kao CM, Gu S, Xiao P, Xie Q. A PET system design by using mixed detectors: resolution properties. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Jul 07; 59(13):3517-32. PMID: 24910321.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gong J, Wang Z, Polejaeva I, Salgia R, Kao CM, Chen CT, Chen G, Chen L. Activating the expression of human K-rasG12D stimulates oncogenic transformation in transgenic goat fetal fibroblast cells. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90059. PMID: 24594684.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kim H, Chen CT, Ronzhin A, Murat P, Ramberg E, Los S, Moses WW, Choong WS, Kao CM. A new time calibration method for switched-capacitor-array-based waveform samplers. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2014; 767:67-74.
    18. Xie Q, Chen Y, Zhu J, Liu J, Wang X, Liu W, Chen X, Niu M, Wu Z, Xi D, Wang L, Xiao P, Chen CT, Kao CM. Implementation of LYSO/PSPMT block detector with all digital DAQ system. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2013; 60:1487-1494.
    19. Ronzhin A, Albrow M, Los S, Martens M, Murat P, Ramberg E, Kim H, Chen CT, Kao CM, Niessen K, Zatserklyaniy A, Mazzillo M, Carbone B, Condorelli G, Fallica G, Piana A, Sanfilippo D, Valvo G, Ritt S. A SiPM-based TOF-PET detector with high speed digital DRS4 readout. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2013; 703:109-113.
    20. Xi D, Kao CM, Liu W, Zeng C, Liu X, Xie Q. FPGA-only MVT digitizer for TOF PET. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2013; 60:3253-3261.
    21. Chou CY, Dong Y, Hung Y, Kao YJ, Wang W, Kao CM, Chen CT. Accelerating image reconstruction in dual-head PET system by GPU and symmetry properties. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50540. PMID: 23300527.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Xi D, Xie Q, Zhu J, Lin L, Niu M, Xiao P, Chen CT, Kao CM. Optimization of the SiPM pixel size for a monolithic PET detector. Physics Procedia. 2012; 37:1497-1503.
    23. Kim H, Chen CT, Frisch H, Tang F, Kao CM. An application of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube to positron emission tomography. Physics Procedia. 2012; 37:1480-1487.
    24. Niu M, Kao CM, Zhu J, Xiao P, Long A, Wagner RG, Drake G, Chen CT, Xie Q. Evaluation of multi-pixel photon counters in energy determination for PET imaging. Journal of Instrumentation. 2012; 7:T04001.
    25. Kim H, Chen CT, Frisch H, Kao CM. A prototype TOF PET detector module using micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube with waveform sampling. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 2012; 662:26-32.
    26. Kim H, Frisch H, Kao CM, Chen CT, Genat JF, Tang F, Moses WW, Choong WS. A design of a PET detector using micro-channel plate PMT with transmission-line readout. Nuclear Instrument and Methods in Physics Research A. 2010; 622:628-636.
    27. Xie Q, Kao CM, Wang X, Guo N, Zhu C, Frisch H, Moses WW, Chen CT. Potentials of Digitally Sampling Scintillation Pulses in Timing Determination in PET. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Oct 06; 56(5):2607-2613. PMID: 20376278.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Kim H, Kao CM, Xie Q, Chen CT, Zhou L, Tang F, Frisch H, Moses WW, Choong WS. A multi-threshold sampling method for TOF PET signal processing. Nuclear Instrument and Methods in Physics Research A. 2009; 602:618–621.
    29. Kao CM, Xie Q, Dong Y, Wan L, Chen CT. A high-sensitivity small-animal PET scanner: Development and initial performance measurements. IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science. 2009; 56:2678-2688.
    30. Kao CM. Windowed image reconstruction for time-of-flight positron emission tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Jul 07; 53(13):3431-45. PMID: 18547913.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Kao CM, Sidky E, La Riviere P, Pan X. Principles and Advanced Methods in Medical Imaging and Image Analysis. AP Dhawan, HK Huang, DS Kim eds. Some recent developments in reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging. 2008; 361-391.
    32. Kao CM, Dong Y, Xie Q, Chen CT. Image reconstruction of a dual-head small-animal PET system by using Monte-Carlo computed system response matrix. 2007 International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 2007; 398-401.
    33. Kao CM, Zou Y, Cho S, Pan X. An exact analytic approach to 3D PET image reconstruction. International Journal of Image and Graphics. 2007; 7:35-54.
    34. Sidky E, Kao CM, Pan X . Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT. Journal of X-ray Science and Technology. 2006; 14:119-139.
    35. Pan X, Yu L, Kao CM. Spatial-resolution enhancement in computed tomography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Feb; 24(2):246-53. PMID: 15707250.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Xie Q, Kao CM, Hsiau Z, Chen CT. A new approach for pulse processing in positron emission tomography. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2005; 52:988-995.
    37. Kao CM, Pan X, Chen CT. An exact Fourier rebinning algorithm for 3D PET imaging using panel detectors. Phys Med Biol. 2004 Jun 07; 49(11):2407-23. PMID: 15248586.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Kao CM, La Rivière P, Pan X. Emission Tomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT. MN Wernick and JN Aarsvold eds. Basics of imaging theory and statistics. 2004; 103-126.
    39. Chen CT, Cooper M, Kao CM, La Rivière P, Pan X, Wen HH, Hsu CH, Hsiau Z, Lin KMC, Lu CC. Frontiers in Biomedical Engineering. NHC Hwang and SLY Woo eds. Functional and molecular imaging using positron emission tomography. 2003; 295-313.
    40. Pan X, Kao CM, Sidky E, Zou Y, Metz CE. $\pi$-scheme short-scan SPECT and image reconstruction,. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2003; 50:87-96.
    41. Pan X, Sidky EY, Kao CM, Zou Y, Metz CE. Short-scan SPECT imaging with non-uniform attenuation and 3D distance-dependent spatial resolution. Phys Med Biol. 2002 Aug 07; 47(15):2811-33. PMID: 12200941.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Kao CM, Pan X, Penney BC. Toward optimal reduction of noise and errors in non-iterative reconstruction methods for 3D SPECT. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2002; 49:774-781.
    43. Penney BC, Kao CM, Pan X, Bidani N. Dual Isotope (In-111/Tc-99m) SPECT: Noise reduction with an analytic attenuation correction method. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2002; 49:733-739.
    44. Pan X, Kao CM, Metz CE. A family of $\pi$-scheme exponential Radon transforms and the uniqueness of their inverses. Inverse Problem. 2002; 18:825-836.
    45. Kao CM and Chen CT . A direct sinogram-restoration method for fast image reconstruction in compact DOI-PET systems. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2002; 49:208-214.
    46. Pan X, La Rivière P, Gilland D, Kao CM, Chang W, Jaszczak R. Transmission image reconstruction and redundant information in SPECT with asymmetric fan-beam collimation. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2001; 48:1357-1363.
    47. Pan X, Kao CM, Metz CE, Kiselev A. Image reconstruction in 3D short-scan SPECT. 2001 International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 2001; 119-124.
    48. Kao CM and Pan X. Non-iterative methods incorporating a priori source distribution and data information for suppression of image noise and artifacts in 3D SPECT. Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2000; 45:2801-2819.
    49. Kao CM, Pan X, Chen CT. Accurate image reconstruction using DOI information and its implications for the development of compact PET systems. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2000; 47:1551-1560.
    50. Kao CM, Pan X, La Rivière P, Anastasio MA. Fourier-based optimal recovery method for antialiasing interpolation. Optical Engineering. 1999; 38:2041-2044.
    51. Kao CM and Pan X. Fast implementation and quantitative evaluation of analytical methods with Wiener filters for image reconstruction in 3D SPECT. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 1999; 46:1100-1109.
    52. Pan X, Anastasio MA, Kao CM. A comparative studies of image reconstructions in SPECT and ultrasonic diffraction tomography. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 1999; 46:527-534.
    53. Anastasio MA, Pan X, Kao CM. Multi-dimensional smoothing using orthogonal expansions. IEEE Signal Processing Letters. 1999; 6:91-94.
    54. Kao CM, Pan X, Chen CT, Wong WH. Image restoration and reconstruction with a Bayesian approach. Med Phys. 1998 May; 25(5):600-13. PMID: 9608469.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Kao CM, Pan X, Hiller EM, Chen CT. A Bayesian approach for edge extraction in medical ultrasound image. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 1998; 45:3089-3096.
    56. Kao CM, Wernick MN, Chen CT. Kalman sinogram restoration for fast and accurate PET image reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 1998; (45):3022-3029.
    57. Kao CM, Yap JT, Mukherjee J, Wernick MN. Image reconstruction for dynamic PET based on low-order approximation and restoration of the sinograms. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 1997; 16:738-749.
    58. Kao CM. Pre-reconstruction sinogram restoration for positron emission tomography. 1997.
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