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Manyuan Long

TitlePROFESSOR
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentEcology & Evolution
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Since my doctoral study in California in the early 1990s, I have been focusing on the study of a new and major scientific problem: How does a gene originate and evolve? The approaches I have developed and are being used to investigate the new gene problem include theoretical, computational, and molecular experimental approaches. We are currently exploring following scientific issues:

    #Evolution of gene expression networks by integration of new genes;
    #Phenotypic effects and functions of new genes;
    #Evolutionary analysis of gene interactions with new genes;
    #Copy number variation within Drosophila populations;
    #Evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-related genes;
    #Genes and Genomes in plants: high origination rate of chimeric genes in the grass family.

    Our scientific works have generated scientific and societal impacts:

    Scientific impacts:

    #The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) summarized my contribution when conferring me with a fellow honor (2014 AAAS Fellow) as “You are being honored: For distinguished contributions to the fields of molecular evolution and genetics, particularly for starting and leading the area of new gene evolution using experimental and computational genomics and molecular biology”.

    #Our discovers have helped shape the new chapters and sections about new gene evolution in major textbooks pf evolutionary biology (e.g. Douglas Futuyma, 2009 and 2005, Evolution, Sinauer, Massachusetts; Michael Lynch, 2007, The Origins of Genome Architecture, Sinauer, Massachesetts; Wen-Hsiung Li, 1997, Molecular Evolution, Sinauer, Massachusetts; Roderic Page and Edward Holmes, 1998, Molecular Evolution. Blackwell Science London).

    Societal impacts:

    #New York Times, Washington Times, Chicago Tribune, Sacramento Bee, The Huffington Post, La Vanguardia, the New Scientist, the Scientist, Discover, La Recherche, Wen Hui Bao, and other news media in US, Europe, East Asia reported in various languages his scientific discovers and commentaries.

    #Our research results summarized in a Nature Rev Genet article (Manyuan Long et al, 2003) were cited as major evidence for a successful defense of Amendment I to the United States Constitution in the nationally concerned case of Kitzmiller et al. vs. Dover Area School District in Pennsylvania in 2005.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Sichuan Agricultural University , SichuanB.A. and M.S.01/2015Crop Plants and Genetics
    University of California at Davis, CaliforniaM.S. and Ph.D.12/1992Genetics and Evolution
    Harvard University, Cambridge MassachusettsPostdoctoral Fellow10/1997Gene evolution and molecular biology
    Collapse awards and honors
    1993Allen Marr Prize, The University of California at Davis
    1999Packard Fellow for Science & Engineering, Davis & Lucile Packard Foundation
    2003CAREER Award, National Science Foundation
    2011Inaugural Edna K Papazian Distinguished Service Professor, The University of Chicago
    2014AAAS Fellow, the American Association for the Advancement of Science

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Lee YCG, Ventura IM, Rice GR, Chen DY, Colmenares SU, Long M. Rapid Evolution of Gained Essential Developmental Functions of a Young Gene via Interactions with Other Essential Genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2019 10 01; 36(10):2212-2226. PMID: 31187122.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Long M, Shen B. Evolution of genes and genomes: an emerging paradigm in life science. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 04; 62(4):435-436. PMID: 30929192.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Zhang W, Gao Y, Long M, Shen B. Origination and evolution of orphan genes and de novo genes in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 Apr; 62(4):579-593. PMID: 30919281.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Zu J, Gu Y, Li Y, Li C, Zhang W, Zhang YE, Lee U, Zhang L, Long M. Topological evolution of coexpression networks by new gene integration maintains the hierarchical and modular structures in human ancestors. Sci China Life Sci. 2019 Apr; 62(4):594-608. PMID: 30919280.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Shao Y, Chen C, Shen H, He BZ, Yu D, Jiang S, Zhao S, Gao Z, Zhu Z, Chen X, Fu Y, Chen H, Gao G, Long M, Zhang YE. GenTree, an integrated resource for analyzing the evolution and function of primate-specific coding genes. Genome Res. 2019 04; 29(4):682-696. PMID: 30862647.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Zhang L, Ren Y, Yang T, Li G, Chen J, Gschwend AR, Yu Y, Hou G, Zi J, Zhou R, Wen B, Zhang J, Chougule K, Wang M, Copetti D, Peng Z, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Ouyang Y, Wing RA, Liu S, Long M. Rapid evolution of protein diversity by de novo origination in Oryza. Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 04; 3(4):679-690. PMID: 30858588.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Stein JC, Yu Y, Copetti D, Zwickl DJ, Zhang L, Zhang C, Chougule K, Gao D, Iwata A, Goicoechea JL, Wei S, Wang J, Liao Y, Wang M, Jacquemin J, Becker C, Kudrna D, Zhang J, Londono CEM, Song X, Lee S, Sanchez P, Zuccolo A, Ammiraju JSS, Talag J, Danowitz A, Rivera LF, Gschwend AR, Noutsos C, Wu CC, Kao SM, Zeng JW, Wei FJ, Zhao Q, Feng Q, El Baidouri M, Carpentier MC, Lasserre E, Cooke R, da Rosa Farias D, da Maia LC, Dos Santos RS, Nyberg KG, McNally KL, Mauleon R, Alexandrov N, Schmutz J, Flowers D, Fan C, Weigel D, Jena KK, Wicker T, Chen M, Han B, Henry R, Hsing YC, Kurata N, de Oliveira AC, Panaud O, Jackson SA, Machado CA, Sanderson MJ, Long M, Ware D, Wing RA. Publisher Correction: Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza. Nat Genet. 2018 11; 50(11):1618. PMID: 30291357.
      View in: PubMed
    8. VanKuren NW, Long M. Gene duplicates resolving sexual conflict rapidly evolved essential gametogenesis functions. Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 04; 2(4):705-712. PMID: 29459709.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Stein JC, Yu Y, Copetti D, Zwickl DJ, Zhang L, Zhang C, Chougule K, Gao D, Iwata A, Goicoechea JL, Wei S, Wang J, Liao Y, Wang M, Jacquemin J, Becker C, Kudrna D, Zhang J, Londono CEM, Song X, Lee S, Sanchez P, Zuccolo A, Ammiraju JSS, Talag J, Danowitz A, Rivera LF, Gschwend AR, Noutsos C, Wu CC, Kao SM, Zeng JW, Wei FJ, Zhao Q, Feng Q, El Baidouri M, Carpentier MC, Lasserre E, Cooke R, Rosa Farias DD, da Maia LC, Dos Santos RS, Nyberg KG, McNally KL, Mauleon R, Alexandrov N, Schmutz J, Flowers D, Fan C, Weigel D, Jena KK, Wicker T, Chen M, Han B, Henry R, Hsing YC, Kurata N, de Oliveira AC, Panaud O, Jackson SA, Machado CA, Sanderson MJ, Long M, Ware D, Wing RA. Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza. Nat Genet. 2018 02; 50(2):285-296. PMID: 29358651.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Long M, Emerson JJ. Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation: Compensation by Gene Traffic. Curr Biol. 2017 07 10; 27(13):R659-R661. PMID: 28697367.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lee YCG, Yang Q, Chi W, Turkson SA, Du WA, Kemkemer C, Zeng ZB, Long M, Zhuang X. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation Underlying Adult Foraging Behavior That Is Essential for Survival of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol Evol. 2017 05 01; 9(5):1357-1369. PMID: 28472322.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chen ZX, Oliver B, Zhang YE, Gao G, Long M. Expressed Structurally-stable Inverted Duplicates in Mammalian Genomes as Functional Noncoding Elements. Genome Biol Evol. 2017 Mar 13. PMID: 28338961.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Tan S, Cardoso-Moreira M, Shi W, Zhang D, Huang J, Mao Y, Jia H, Zhang Y, Chen C, Shao Y, Leng L, Liu Z, Huang X, Long M, Zhang YE. LTR-mediated retroposition as a mechanism of RNA-based duplication in metazoans. Genome Res. 2016 12; 26(12):1663-1675. PMID: 27934698.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Zhang W, Landback P, Gschwend AR, Shen B, Long M. New genes drive the evolution of gene interaction networks in the human and mouse genomes. Genome Biol. 2015 Oct 01; 16:202. PMID: 26424194.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Zhang YE, Long M. New genes contribute to genetic and phenotypic novelties in human evolution. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2014 Dec; 29:90-6. PMID: 25218862.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Wang M, Yu Y, Haberer G, Marri PR, Fan C, Goicoechea JL, Zuccolo A, Song X, Kudrna D, Ammiraju JS, Cossu RM, Maldonado C, Chen J, Lee S, Sisneros N, de Baynast K, Golser W, Wissotski M, Kim W, Sanchez P, Ndjiondjop MN, Sanni K, Long M, Carney J, Panaud O, Wicker T, Machado CA, Chen M, Mayer KF, Rounsley S, Wing RA. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication. Nat Genet. 2014 Sep; 46(9):982-8. PMID: 25064006.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kemkemer C, Long M. New genes important for development. EMBO Rep. 2014 May; 15(5):460-1. PMID: 24723687.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Zhang C, Gschwend AR, Ouyang Y, Long M. Evolution of gene structural complexity: an alternative-splicing-based model accounts for intron-containing retrogenes. Plant Physiol. 2014 May; 165(1):412-23. PMID: 24520158.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gao G, Vibranovski MD, Zhang L, Li Z, Liu M, Zhang YE, Li X, Zhang W, Fan Q, VanKuren NW, Long M, Wei L. A long-term demasculinization of X-linked intergenic noncoding RNAs in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Res. 2014 04; 24(4):629-38. PMID: 24407956.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Long M, VanKuren NW, Chen S, Vibranovski MD. New gene evolution: little did we know. Annu Rev Genet. 2013; 47:307-33. PMID: 24050177.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Chen S, Krinsky BH, Long M. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution. Nat Rev Genet. 2013 Sep; 14(9):645-60. PMID: 23949544.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Zhang C, Wang J, Long M, Fan C. gKaKs: the pipeline for genome-level Ka/Ks calculation. Bioinformatics. 2013 Mar 01; 29(5):645-6. PMID: 23314322.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Zhang C, Wang J, Marowsky NC, Long M, Wing RA, Fan C. High occurrence of functional new chimeric genes in survey of rice chromosome 3 short arm genome sequences. Genome Biol Evol. 2013; 5(5):1038-48. PMID: 23651622.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Long M, Zhang L. Why rodent pseudogenes refuse to retire. Genome Biol. 2012 Nov 20; 13(11):178. PMID: 23167957.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Ni X, Zhang YE, Nègre N, Chen S, Long M, White KP. Adaptive evolution and the birth of CTCF binding sites in the Drosophila genome. PLoS Biol. 2012; 10(11):e1001420. PMID: 23139640.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Zhang YE, Landback P, Vibranovski M, Long M. New genes expressed in human brains: implications for annotating evolving genomes. Bioessays. 2012 Nov; 34(11):982-91. PMID: 23001763.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Vibranovski MD, Zhang YE, Kemkemer C, VanKuren NW, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Segmental dataset and whole body expression data do not support the hypothesis that non-random movement is an intrinsic property of Drosophila retrogenes. BMC Evol Biol. 2012 Sep 05; 12:169. PMID: 22950647.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Vibranovski MD, Zhang YE, Kemkemer C, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Re-analysis of the larval testis data on meiotic sex chromosome inactivation revealed evidence for tissue-specific gene expression related to the drosophila X chromosome. BMC Biol. 2012 Jun 12; 10:49; author reply 50. PMID: 22691264.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Chen S, Ni X, Krinsky BH, Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, White KP, Long M. Reshaping of global gene expression networks and sex-biased gene expression by integration of a young gene. EMBO J. 2012 Jun 13; 31(12):2798-809. PMID: 22543869.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Wang J, Long M, Vibranovski MD. Retrogenes moved out of the z chromosome in the silkworm. J Mol Evol. 2012 Apr; 74(3-4):113-26. PMID: 22535494.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Chen S, Spletter M, Ni X, White KP, Luo L, Long M. Frequent recent origination of brain genes shaped the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012 Feb 23; 1(2):118-32. PMID: 22832161.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Cardoso-Moreira M, Long M. The origin and evolution of new genes. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 856:161-86. PMID: 22399459.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Cardoso-Moreira M, Emerson JJ, Clark AG, Long M. Drosophila duplication hotspots are associated with late-replicating regions of the genome. PLoS Genet. 2011 Nov; 7(11):e1002340. PMID: 22072977.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Zhang YE, Landback P, Vibranovski MD, Long M. Accelerated recruitment of new brain development genes into the human genome. PLoS Biol. 2011 Oct; 9(10):e1001179. PMID: 22028629.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Chen S, Yang H, Krinsky BH, Zhang A, Long M. Roles of young serine-endopeptidase genes in survival and reproduction revealed rapid evolution of phenotypic effects at adult stages. Fly (Austin). 2011 Oct-Dec; 5(4):345-51. PMID: 21946255.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Chen M, Zou M, Fu B, Li X, Vibranovski MD, Gan X, Wang D, Wang W, Long M, He S. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21466. PMID: 21779328.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Chen ZX, Zhang YE, Vibranovski M, Luo J, Gao G, Long M. Deficiency of X-linked inverted duplicates with male-biased expression and the underlying evolutionary mechanisms in the Drosophila genome. Mol Biol Evol. 2011 Oct; 28(10):2823-32. PMID: 21546357.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Krinsky BH, Long M. A cautionary note for retrocopy identification: DNA-based duplication of intron-containing genes significantly contributes to the origination of single exon genes. Bioinformatics. 2011 Jul 01; 27(13):1749-53. PMID: 21551137.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Zhang C, Wang J, Xie W, Zhou G, Long M, Zhang Q. Dynamic programming procedure for searching optimal models to estimate substitution rates based on the maximum-likelihood method. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 10; 108(19):7860-5. PMID: 21521791.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Chen Y, Dai H, Chen S, Zhang L, Long M. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 26; 6(4):e18853. PMID: 21541324.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Chen S, Zhang YE, Long M. New genes in Drosophila quickly become essential. Science. 2010 Dec 17; 330(6011):1682-5. PMID: 21164016.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Fu B, Chen M, Zou M, Long M, He S. The rapid generation of chimerical genes expanding protein diversity in zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2010 Nov 24; 11:657. PMID: 21106061.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Landback P, Marais GA, Long M. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome. PLoS Biol. 2010 Oct 05; 8(10). PMID: 20957185.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Zhang J, Yang H, Long M, Li L, Dean AM. Evolution of enzymatic activities of testis-specific short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 2010 Oct; 71(4):241-9. PMID: 20809353.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Zhang YE, Vibranovski MD, Krinsky BH, Long M. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2010 Nov; 20(11):1526-33. PMID: 20798392.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Vibranovski MD, Chalopin DS, Lopes HF, Long M, Karr TL. Direct evidence for postmeiotic transcription during Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. Genetics. 2010 Sep; 186(1):431-3. PMID: 20610406.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Cardoso-Moreira MM, Long M. Mutational bias shaping fly copy number variation: implications for genome evolution. Trends Genet. 2010 Jun; 26(6):243-7. PMID: 20416969.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Raleigh DR, Marchiando AM, Zhang Y, Shen L, Sasaki H, Wang Y, Long M, Turner JR. Tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins marveld3, tricellulin, and occludin have distinct but overlapping functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Apr 01; 21(7):1200-13. PMID: 20164257.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Arguello JR, Zhang Y, Kado T, Fan C, Zhao R, Innan H, Wang W, Long M. Recombination yet inefficient selection along the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup's fourth chromosome. Mol Biol Evol. 2010 Apr; 27(4):848-61. PMID: 20008457.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Vibranovski MD, Lopes HF, Karr TL, Long M. Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS Genet. 2009 Nov; 5(11):e1000731. PMID: 19936020.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Zhang Y, Lu S, Zhao S, Zheng X, Long M, Wei L. Positive selection for the male functionality of a co-retroposed gene in the hominoids. BMC Evol Biol. 2009 Oct 15; 9:252. PMID: 19832993.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Long M. Extensive structural renovation of retrogenes in the evolution of the Populus genome. Plant Physiol. 2009 Dec; 151(4):1943-51. PMID: 19789289.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Li Z, Liu M, Zhang L, Zhang W, Gao G, Zhu Z, Wei L, Fan Q, Long M. Detection of intergenic non-coding RNAs expressed in the main developmental stages in Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jul; 37(13):4308-14. PMID: 19451167.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Vibranovski MD, Zhang Y, Long M. General gene movement off the X chromosome in the Drosophila genus. Genome Res. 2009 May; 19(5):897-903. PMID: 19251740.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Xiao W, Liu H, Li Y, Li X, Xu C, Long M, Wang S. A rice gene of de novo origin negatively regulates pathogen-induced defense response. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4603. PMID: 19240804.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Kaessmann H, Vinckenbosch N, Long M. RNA-based gene duplication: mechanistic and evolutionary insights. Nat Rev Genet. 2009 Jan; 10(1):19-31. PMID: 19030023.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Fan C, Zhang Y, Yu Y, Rounsley S, Long M, Wing RA. The subtelomere of Oryza sativa chromosome 3 short arm as a hot bed of new gene origination in rice. Mol Plant. 2008 Sep; 1(5):839-50. PMID: 19825586.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Emerson JJ, Cardoso-Moreira M, Borevitz JO, Long M. Natural selection shapes genome-wide patterns of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2008 Jun 20; 320(5883):1629-31. PMID: 18535209.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Dai H, Chen Y, Chen S, Mao Q, Kennedy D, Landback P, Eyre-Walker A, Du W, Long M. The evolution of courtship behaviors through the origination of a new gene in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 27; 105(21):7478-83. PMID: 18508971.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Fan C, Chen Y, Long M. Recurrent tandem gene duplication gave rise to functionally divergent genes in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2008 Jul; 25(7):1451-8. PMID: 18408233.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Shiao MS, Liao BY, Long M, Yu HT. Adaptive evolution of the insulin two-gene system in mouse. Genetics. 2008 Mar; 178(3):1683-91. PMID: 18245324.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Havlioglu N, Wang J, Fushimi K, Vibranovski MD, Kan Z, Gish W, Fedorov A, Long M, Wu JY. An intronic signal for alternative splicing in the human genome. PLoS One. 2007 Nov 28; 2(11):e1246. PMID: 18043753.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Yang S, Arguello JR, Li X, Ding Y, Zhou Q, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Zhao R, Brunet F, Peng L, Long M, Wang W. Repetitive element-mediated recombination as a mechanism for new gene origination in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2008 Jan; 4(1):e3. PMID: 18208328.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny. Nature. 2007 Nov 08; 450(7167):203-18. PMID: 17994087.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Shiao MS, Khil P, Camerini-Otero RD, Shiroishi T, Moriwaki K, Yu HT, Long M. Origins of new male germ-line functions from X-derived autosomal retrogenes in the mouse. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Oct; 24(10):2242-53. PMID: 17646254.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Long M. Side effects of Tamiflu: clues from an Asian single nucleotide polymorphism. Cell Res. 2007 Apr; 17(4):309-10. PMID: 17435775.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Arguello JR, Fan C, Wang W, Long M. Origination of chimeric genes through DNA-level recombination. Genome Dyn. 2007; 3:131-146. PMID: 18753789.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Fan C, Long M. A new retroposed gene in Drosophila heterochromatin detected by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. J Mol Evol. 2007 Feb; 64(2):272-83. PMID: 17177089.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Dai H, Yoshimatsu TF, Long M. Retrogene movement within- and between-chromosomes in the evolution of Drosophila genomes. Gene. 2006 Dec 30; 385:96-102. PMID: 17101240.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Wang W, Zheng H, Fan C, Li J, Shi J, Cai Z, Zhang G, Liu D, Zhang J, Vang S, Lu Z, Wong GK, Long M, Wang J. High rate of chimeric gene origination by retroposition in plant genomes. Plant Cell. 2006 Aug; 18(8):1791-802. PMID: 16829590.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Arguello JR, Chen Y, Yang S, Wang W, Long M. Origination of an X-linked testes chimeric gene by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2006 May; 2(5):e77. PMID: 16715176.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Zhang J, Long M, Li L. Translational effects of differential codon usage among intragenic domains of new genes in Drosophila. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 01; 1728(3):135-42. PMID: 15833448.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Zhang J, Dean AM, Brunet F, Long M. Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16246-50. PMID: 15534206.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Thornton K, Long M. Excess of amino acid substitutions relative to polymorphism between X-linked duplications in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2005 Feb; 22(2):273-84. PMID: 15483321.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Betrán E, Emerson JJ, Kaessmann H, Long M. Sex chromosomes and male functions: where do new genes go? Cell Cycle. 2004 Jul; 3(7):873-5. PMID: 15190200.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Wang W, Yu H, Long M. Duplication-degeneration as a mechanism of gene fission and the origin of new genes in Drosophila species. Nat Genet. 2004 May; 36(5):523-7. PMID: 15064762.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Wang W, Thornton K, Emerson JJ, Long M. Nucleotide variation and recombination along the fourth chromosome in Drosophila simulans. Genetics. 2004 Apr; 166(4):1783-94. PMID: 15126398.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Emerson JJ, Kaessmann H, Betrán E, Long M. Extensive gene traffic on the mammalian X chromosome. Science. 2004 Jan 23; 303(5657):537-40. PMID: 14739461.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Long M, Betrán E, Thornton K, Wang W. The origin of new genes: glimpses from the young and old. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Nov; 4(11):865-75. PMID: 14634634.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Betrán E, Long M. Dntf-2r, a young Drosophila retroposed gene with specific male expression under positive Darwinian selection. Genetics. 2003 Jul; 164(3):977-88. PMID: 12871908.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Long M, Deutsch M, Wang W, Betrán E, Brunet FG, Zhang J. Origin of new genes: evidence from experimental and computational analyses. Genetica. 2003 Jul; 118(2-3):171-82. PMID: 12868607.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Betrán E, Thornton K, Long M. Retroposed new genes out of the X in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2002 Dec; 12(12):1854-9. PMID: 12466289.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Llopart A, Comeron JM, Brunet FG, Lachaise D, Long M. Intron presence-absence polymorphism in Drosophila driven by positive Darwinian selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11; 99(12):8121-6. PMID: 12060758.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Thornton K, Long M. Rapid divergence of gene duplicates on the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 Jun; 19(6):918-25. PMID: 12032248.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Betrán E, Long M. Expansion of genome coding regions by acquisition of new genes. Genetica. 2002 May; 115(1):65-80. PMID: 12188049.
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    86. Betrán E, Wang W, Jin L, Long M. Evolution of the phosphoglycerate mutase processed gene in human and chimpanzee revealing the origin of a new primate gene. Mol Biol Evol. 2002 May; 19(5):654-63. PMID: 11961099.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Wang W, Brunet FG, Nevo E, Long M. Origin of sphinx, a young chimeric RNA gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 02; 99(7):4448-53. PMID: 11904380.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Wang W, Thornton K, Berry A, Long M. Nucleotide variation along the Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome. Science. 2002 Jan 04; 295(5552):134-7. PMID: 11778050.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Long M. Evolution of novel genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001 Dec; 11(6):673-80. PMID: 11682312.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Long M, Thornton K. Gene duplication and evolution. Science. 2001 Aug 31; 293(5535):1551. PMID: 11533445.
      View in: PubMed
    91. Long M, Rosenberg C. Testing the "proto-splice sites" model of intron origin: evidence from analysis of intron phase correlations. Mol Biol Evol. 2000 Dec; 17(12):1789-96. PMID: 11110894.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Long M. A new function evolved from gene fusion. Genome Res. 2000 Nov; 10(11):1655-7. PMID: 11076848.
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    93. Wang W, Zhang J, Alvarez C, Llopart A, Long M. The origin of the Jingwei gene and the complex modular structure of its parental gene, yellow emperor, in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Evol. 2000 Sep; 17(9):1294-301. PMID: 10958846.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Long M, Deutsch M. Association of intron phases with conservation at splice site sequences and evolution of spliceosomal introns. Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Nov; 16(11):1528-34. PMID: 10555284.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Long M, Wang W, Zhang J. Origin of new genes and source for N-terminal domain of the chimerical gene, jingwei, in Drosophila. Gene. 1999 Sep 30; 238(1):135-41. PMID: 10570991.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Deutsch M, Long M. Intron-exon structures of eukaryotic model organisms. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Aug 01; 27(15):3219-28. PMID: 10454621.
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