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Callum F. Ross

TitlePROFESSOR
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentOrg.Bio./Anatomy
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
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    My research program focuses on the motor control and biomechanics of the head, with special emphasis on feeding. The feeding research seeks to document in vivo functioning of the feeding system using bone strain, electromyographic, videofluoroscopic, optico-kinematic and neural recording techniques. These data are used to test hypotheses regarding the functional significance of variation in the morphology of the feeding system, and the role of the cortex in the control of chewing and swallowing. I am currently investigating the scaling of safety factors and temporal variables in feeding kinematics and kinetics in primates to determine whether common principles apply to the locomotor and feeding systems. This includes questions regarding the modulation of motor activity during chewing and swallowing, performance costs, and common principles governing scaling of the skeletal system.

    I am involved in a collaborative research project with a number of physical anthropologists to develop finite-element models of primate skulls and use them to test hypotheses regarding the functional determinants of skull form. This will include analyses of fossil hominids.

    Nicho Hatsopoulos and I are collaborating on research into the role of primary motor and sensory cortex in the control of chewing and swallowing. We are studying neural encoding of jaw and tongue movements, and neuroplasticity associated with learning new oral skills.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Humphries LS, Reid RR, Ross CF, Taylor AB, Collins JM, Freire AR, Rossi AC, Prado FB. Biomechanical and morphological analysis of Pierre Robin sequence mandible: Finite element and morphometric study. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2020 Oct 25. PMID: 33099874.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Panagiotopoulou O, Iriarte-Diaz J, Mehari Abraha H, Taylor AB, Wilshin S, Dechow PC, Ross CF. Biomechanics of the mandible of Macaca mulatta during the power stroke of mastication: Loading, deformation, and strain regimes and the impact of food type. J Hum Evol. 2020 Oct; 147:102865. PMID: 32905895.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Laurence-Chasen JD, Manafzadeh AR, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Arce-McShane FI. Integrating XMALab and DeepLabCut for high-throughput XROMM. J Exp Biol. 2020 Sep 04; 223(Pt 17). PMID: 32665442.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Granatosky MC, Ross CF. Differences in muscle mechanics underlie divergent optimality criteria between feeding and locomotor systems. J Anat. 2020 Jul 16. PMID: 32671858.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Ross CF, Pescitelli MJ, Smith HF, Williams JM. Teaching anatomy with dissection in the time of COVID-19 is essential and possible. Clin Anat. 2020 Jun 25. PMID: 32583873.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Orsbon CP, Gidmark NJ, Gao T, Ross CF. XROMM and diceCT reveal a hydraulic mechanism of tongue base retraction in swallowing. Sci Rep. 2020 05 19; 10(1):8215. PMID: 32427836.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Laird MF, Granatosky MC, Taylor AB, Ross CF. Muscle architecture dynamics modulate performance of the superficial anterior temporalis muscle during chewing in capuchins. Sci Rep. 2020 04 14; 10(1):6410. PMID: 32286442.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Granatosky MC, McElroy EJ, Lemelin P, Reilly SM, Nyakatura JA, Andrada E, Kilbourne BM, Allen VR, Butcher MT, Blob RW, Ross CF. Variation in limb loading magnitude and timing in tetrapods. J Exp Biol. 2020 01 27; 223(Pt 2). PMID: 31776184.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Teaford MF, Ungar PS, Taylor AB, Ross CF, Vinyard CJ. The dental microwear of hard-object feeding in laboratory Sapajus apella and its implications for dental microwear formation. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2020 03; 171(3):439-455. PMID: 31922261.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Laird MF, Ross CF, O'Higgins P. Jaw kinematics and mandibular morphology in humans. J Hum Evol. 2020 02; 139:102639. PMID: 31841671.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ram Y, Ross CF. Jaw Elevator Muscle Coordination during Rhythmic Mastication in Primates: Are Triplets Units of Motor Control? Brain Behav Evol. 2020; 95(1):1-14. PMID: 31821998.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Mehari Abraha H, Iriarte-Diaz J, Ross CF, Taylor AB, Panagiotopoulou O. The Mechanical Effect of the Periodontal Ligament on Bone Strain Regimes in a Validated Finite Element Model of a Macaque Mandible. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2019; 7:269. PMID: 31737614.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Wright BW, Wright KA, Strait DS, Ross CF, Laird MF, van Casteren A, Scott R. Taking a big bite: Working together to better understand the evolution of feeding in primates. Am J Primatol. 2019 05; 81(5):e22981. PMID: 31066472.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Granatosky MC, McElroy EJ, Laird MF, Iriarte-Diaz J, Reilly SM, Taylor AB, Ross CF. Joint angular excursions during cyclical behaviors differ between tetrapod feeding and locomotor systems. J Exp Biol. 2019 04 30; 222(Pt 9). PMID: 30967515.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Liu S, Iriate-Diaz J, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Takahashi K, Chen Z. Dynamics of motor cortical activity during naturalistic feeding behavior. J Neural Eng. 2019 04; 16(2):026038. PMID: 30721881.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Granatosky MC, Bryce CM, Hanna J, Fitzsimons A, Laird MF, Stilson K, Wall CE, Ross CF. Inter-stride variability triggers gait transitions in mammals and birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2018 Dec 19; 285(1893):20181766. PMID: 30963900.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Ross CF, Porro LB, Herrel A, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. Bite force and cranial bone strain in four species of lizards. J Exp Biol. 2018 12 04; 221(Pt 23). PMID: 30352826.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Arce-McShane FI, Sessle BJ, Ross CF, Hatsopoulos NG. Primary sensorimotor cortex exhibits complex dependencies of spike-field coherence on neuronal firing rates, field power, and behavior. J Neurophysiol. 2018 07 01; 120(1):226-238. PMID: 29589815.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Orsbon CP, Gidmark NJ, Ross CF. Dynamic Musculoskeletal Functional Morphology: Integrating diceCT and XROMM. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018 02; 301(2):378-406. PMID: 29330951.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Taylor AB, Terhune CE, Toler M, Holmes M, Ross CF, Vinyard CJ. Jaw-Muscle Fiber Architecture and Leverage in the Hard-Object Feeding Sooty Mangabey are not Structured to Facilitate Relatively Large Bite Forces Compared to Other Papionins. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018 02; 301(2):325-342. PMID: 29330952.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Ram Y, Ross CF. Evaluating the triplet hypothesis during rhythmic mastication in primates. J Exp Biol. 2018 01 16; 221(Pt 2). PMID: 29133297.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Panagiotopoulou O, Iriarte-Diaz J, Wilshin S, Dechow PC, Taylor AB, Mehari Abraha H, Aljunid SF, Ross CF. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of a rhesus macaque mandible during mastication. Zoology (Jena). 2017 10; 124:13-29. PMID: 29037463.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Iriarte-Diaz J, Terhune CE, Taylor AB, Ross CF. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates. Zoology (Jena). 2017 10; 124:106-118. PMID: 28993018.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Nakamura Y, Iriarte-Diaz J, Arce-McShane F, Orsbon CP, Brown KA, Eastment M, Avivi-Arber L, Sessle BJ, Inoue M, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Takahashi K. Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Jaw and Hyolingual Apparatus During Swallowing in Macaca mulatta. Dysphagia. 2017 10; 32(5):663-677. PMID: 28528492.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, Platts E, Walsh T, Heins L, Gerstner GE, Taylor AB. Scaling of rotational inertia of primate mandibles. J Hum Evol. 2017 05; 106:119-132. PMID: 28434536.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ledogar JA, Benazzi S, Smith AL, Weber GW, Carlson KB, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Carlson KJ, De Ruiter DJ, Pryor Mcintosh LC, Strait DS. The Biomechanics of Bony Facial "Buttresses" in South African Australopiths: An Experimental Study Using Finite Element Analysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017 01; 300(1):171-195. PMID: 28000396.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Gharpure P, Kontogiorgos ED, Opperman LA, Ross CF, Strait DS, Smith A, Pryor LC, Wang Q, Dechow PC. Elastic Properties of Chimpanzee Craniofacial Cortical Bone. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2016 12; 299(12):1718-1733. PMID: 27870344.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Pryor McIntosh L, Strait DS, Ledogar JA, Smith AL, Ross CF, Wang Q, Opperman LA, Dechow PC. Internal Bone Architecture in the Zygoma of Human and Pan. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2016 12; 299(12):1704-1717. PMID: 27870347.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Prado FB, Freire AR, Cláudia Rossi A, Ledogar JA, Smith AL, Dechow PC, Strait DS, Voigt T, Ross CF. Review of In Vivo Bone Strain Studies and Finite Element Models of the Zygomatic Complex in Humans and Nonhuman Primates: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2016 12; 299(12):1753-1778. PMID: 27870351.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, Reed DA, Stewart TA, Taylor AB. In vivo bone strain in the mandibular corpus of Sapajus during a range of oral food processing behaviors. J Hum Evol. 2016 09; 98:36-65. PMID: 27561711.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Ledogar JA, Dechow PC, Wang Q, Gharpure PH, Gordon AD, Baab KL, Smith AL, Weber GW, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Byron C, Wroe S, Strait DS. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints. PeerJ. 2016; 4:e2242. PMID: 27547550.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Mochizuki Y, Onaga T, Shimazaki H, Shimokawa T, Tsubo Y, Kimura R, Saiki A, Sakai Y, Isomura Y, Fujisawa S, Shibata K, Hirai D, Furuta T, Kaneko T, Takahashi S, Nakazono T, Ishino S, Sakurai Y, Kitsukawa T, Lee JW, Lee H, Jung MW, Babul C, Maldonado PE, Takahashi K, Arce-McShane FI, Ross CF, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG, Brochier T, Riehle A, Chorley P, Grün S, Nishijo H, Ichihara-Takeda S, Funahashi S, Shima K, Mushiake H, Yamane Y, Tamura H, Fujita I, Inaba N, Kawano K, Kurkin S, Fukushima K, Kurata K, Taira M, Tsutsui K, Ogawa T, Komatsu H, Koida K, Toyama K, Richmond BJ, Shinomoto S. Similarity in Neuronal Firing Regimes across Mammalian Species. J Neurosci. 2016 05 25; 36(21):5736-47. PMID: 27225764.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Arce-McShane FI, Ross CF, Takahashi K, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG. Primary motor and sensory cortical areas communicate via spatiotemporally coordinated networks at multiple frequencies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 May 03; 113(18):5083-8. PMID: 27091982.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Ledogar JA, Smith AL, Benazzi S, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Carlson KB, McNulty KP, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Carlson KJ, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR, Tamvada K, Pryor LC, Berthaume MA, Strait DS. Mechanical evidence that Australopithecus sediba was limited in its ability to eat hard foods. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 08; 7:10596. PMID: 26853550.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Taylor AB, Yuan T, Ross CF, Vinyard CJ. Jaw-muscle force and excursion scale with negative allometry in platyrrhine primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2015 Oct; 158(2):242-256. PMID: 26175006.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Aiello BR, Iriarte-Diaz J, Blob RW, Butcher MT, Carrano MT, Espinoza NR, Main RP, Ross CF. Bone strain magnitude is correlated with bone strain rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction. Proc Biol Sci. 2015 Jul 07; 282(1810). PMID: 26063842.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Subramaniyam NP, Hyttinen J, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Takahashi K. Recurrence network analysis of multiple local field potential bands from the orofacial portion of primary motor cortex. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:5343-6. PMID: 26737498.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Best MD, Nakamura Y, Kijak NA, Allen MJ, Lever TE, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF, Takahashi K. Semiautomatic marker tracking of tongue positions captured by videofluoroscopy during primate feeding. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:5347-50. PMID: 26737499.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Smith AL, Benazzi S, Ledogar JA, Tamvada K, Pryor Smith LC, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Strait DS. Biomechanical implications of intraspecific shape variation in chimpanzee crania: moving toward an integration of geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2015 Jan; 298(1):122-44. PMID: 25529239.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Smith AL, Benazzi S, Ledogar JA, Tamvada K, Pryor Smith LC, Weber GW, Spencer MA, Lucas PW, Michael S, Shekeban A, Al-Fadhalah K, Almusallam AS, Dechow PC, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Madden RH, Richmond BG, Wright BW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Wood S, Dzialo C, Berthaume MA, van Casteren A, Strait DS. The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Paranthropus boisei. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2015 Jan; 298(1):145-67. PMID: 25529240.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J. What does feeding system morphology tell us about feeding? Evol Anthropol. 2014 May-Jun; 23(3):105-20. PMID: 24954218.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Arce-McShane FI, Hatsopoulos NG, Lee JC, Ross CF, Sessle BJ. Modulation dynamics in the orofacial sensorimotor cortex during motor skill acquisition. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 23; 34(17):5985-97. PMID: 24760857.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. J Exp Biol. 2014 Jun 01; 217(Pt 11):1983-92. PMID: 24577443.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Orsbon CP, Kaiser RS, Ross CF. Physician opinions about an anatomy core curriculum: a case for medical imaging and vertical integration. Anat Sci Educ. 2014 Jul-Aug; 7(4):251-61. PMID: 24022941.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Porro LB, Metzger KA, Iriarte-Diaz J, Ross CF. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis. J Anat. 2013 Sep; 223(3):195-227. PMID: 23855772.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Strait DS, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Wood BA, Weber GW, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Chalk J, Smith AL, Smith LC, Wood S, Berthaume M, Benazzi S, Dzialo C, Tamvada K, Ledogar JA. Viewpoints: diet and dietary adaptations in early hominins: the hard food perspective. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013 Jul; 151(3):339-55. PMID: 23794330.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Arce FI, Lee JC, Ross CF, Sessle BJ, Hatsopoulos NG. Directional information from neuronal ensembles in the primate orofacial sensorimotor cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Sep; 110(6):1357-69. PMID: 23785133.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Ross CF, Blob RW, Carrier DR, Daley MA, Deban SM, Demes B, Gripper JL, Iriarte-Diaz J, Kilbourne BM, Landberg T, Polk JD, Schilling N, Vanhooydonck B. The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods. Evolution. 2013 Apr; 67(4):1209-17. PMID: 23550769.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Phillips AW, Smith SG, Ross CF, Straus CM. Direct correlation of radiologic and cadaveric structures in a gross anatomy course. Med Teach. 2012; 34(12):e779-84. PMID: 22646297.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Williams BA, Ross CF, Frost SR, Waddle DM, Gabadirwe M, Brook GA. Fossil papio cranium from !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills, western Ngamiland, Botswana. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Sep; 149(1):1-17. PMID: 22639236.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Phillips AW, Smith SG, Ross CF, Straus CM. Improved understanding of human anatomy through self-guided radiological anatomy modules. Acad Radiol. 2012 Jul; 19(7):902-7. PMID: 22537504.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Berthaume MA, Dechow PC, Iriarte-Diaz J, Ross CF, Strait DS, Wang Q, Grosse IR. Probabilistic finite element analysis of a craniofacial finite element model. J Theor Biol. 2012 May 07; 300:242-53. PMID: 22306513.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Takahashi K, Pesce L, Iriarte-Diaz J, Kim S, Coleman TP, Hatsopoulos NG, Ross CF. Granger causality analysis of functional connectivity of spiking neurons in orofacial motor cortex during chewing and swallowing. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:4587-90. PMID: 23366949.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Wang Q, Wood SA, Grosse IR, Ross CF, Zapata U, Byron CD, Wright BW, Strait DS. The role of the sutures in biomechanical dynamic simulation of a macaque cranial finite element model: implications for the evolution of craniofacial form. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012 Feb; 295(2):278-88. PMID: 22190334.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Strait DS, Weber GW, Constantino P, Lucas PW, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Wood BA, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE. Microwear, mechanics and the feeding adaptations of Australopithecus africanus. J Hum Evol. 2012 Jan; 62(1):165-8. PMID: 22130183.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Iriarte-Díaz J, Reed DA, Ross CF. Sources of variance in temporal and spatial aspects of jaw kinematics in two species of primates feeding on foods of different properties. . 2011 Aug; 51(2):307-19. PMID: 21719431.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Konow N, Herrel A, Ross CF, Williams SH, German RZ, Sanford CP, Gintof C. Evolution of muscle activity patterns driving motions of the jaw and hyoid during chewing in Gnathostomes. . 2011 Aug; 51(2):235-46. PMID: 21705368.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Terhune CE, Iriarte-Díaz J, Taylor AB, Ross CF. The instantaneous center of rotation of the mandible in nonhuman primates. . 2011 Aug; 51(2):320-32. PMID: 21622946.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Wood SA, Strait DS, Dumont ER, Ross CF, Grosse IR. The effects of modeling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: the alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments. J Biomech. 2011 Jul 07; 44(10):1831-8. PMID: 21592483.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Porro LB, Holliday CM, Anapol F, Ontiveros LC, Ontiveros LT, Ross CF. Free body analysis, beam mechanics, and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis. J Morphol. 2011 Aug; 272(8):910-37. PMID: 21567445.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Ross CF, Berthaume MA, Dechow PC, Iriarte-Diaz J, Porro LB, Richmond BG, Spencer M, Strait D. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates. J Anat. 2011 Jan; 218(1):112-41. PMID: 21105871.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Reed DA, Porro LB, Iriarte-Diaz J, Lemberg JB, Holliday CM, Anapol F, Ross CF. The impact of bone and suture material properties on mandibular function in Alligator mississippiensis: testing theoretical phenotypes with finite element analysis. J Anat. 2011 Jan; 218(1):59-74. PMID: 21091693.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Chalk J, Richmond BG, Ross CF, Strait DS, Wright BW, Spencer MA, Wang Q, Dechow PC. A finite element analysis of masticatory stress hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011 May; 145(1):1-10. PMID: 21484756.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Reed DA, Ross CF. The influence of food material properties on jaw kinematics in the primate, Cebus. Arch Oral Biol. 2010 Dec; 55(12):946-62. PMID: 20880517.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Gintof C, Konow N, Ross CF, Sanford CP. Rhythmic chewing with oral jaws in teleost fishes: a comparison with amniotes. J Exp Biol. 2010 Jun 01; 213(11):1868-75. PMID: 20472774.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Bastir M, Rosas A, Stringer C, Cuétara JM, Kruszynski R, Weber GW, Ross CF, Ravosa MJ. Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolution. J Hum Evol. 2010 May; 58(5):424-31. PMID: 20378153.
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    67. Strait DS, Grosse IR, Dechow PC, Smith AL, Wang Q, Weber GW, Neubauer S, Slice DE, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Lucas PW, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Wright BW, Byron C, Ross CF. The structural rigidity of the cranium of Australopithecus africanus: implications for diet, dietary adaptations, and the allometry of feeding biomechanics. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010 Apr; 293(4):583-93. PMID: 20235314.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Ravosa MJ, Ross CF, Williams SH, Costley DB. Allometry of masticatory loading parameters in mammals. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010 Apr; 293(4):557-71. PMID: 20235312.
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    69. Williams BA, Kay RF, Kirk EC, Ross CF. Darwinius masillae is a strepsirrhine--a reply to Franzen et al. (2009). J Hum Evol. 2010 Nov; 59(5):567-73; discussion 574-9. PMID: 20188396.
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    70. Ross CF, Baden AL, Georgi J, Herrel A, Metzger KA, Reed DA, Schaerlaeken V, Wolff MS. Chewing variation in lepidosaurs and primates. J Exp Biol. 2010 Feb 15; 213(4):572-84. PMID: 20118308.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Zapata U, Metzger K, Wang Q, Elsey RM, Ross CF, Dechow PC. Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Bone. 2010 Mar; 46(3):860-7. PMID: 19922820.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Ross CF, Washington RL, Eckhardt A, Reed DA, Vogel ER, Dominy NJ, Machanda ZP. Ecological consequences of scaling of chew cycle duration and daily feeding time in primates. J Hum Evol. 2009 Jun; 56(6):570-85. PMID: 19447470.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Strait DS, Weber GW, Neubauer S, Chalk J, Richmond BG, Lucas PW, Spencer MA, Schrein C, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Grosse IR, Wright BW, Constantino P, Wood BA, Lawn B, Hylander WL, Wang Q, Byron C, Slice DE, Smith AL. The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17; 106(7):2124-9. PMID: 19188607.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Ross CF, Reed DA, Washington RL, Eckhardt A, Anapol F, Shahnoor N. Scaling of chew cycle duration in primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Jan; 138(1):30-44. PMID: 18661474.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Schaerlaeken V, Herrel A, Aerts P, Ross CF. The functional significance of the lower temporal bar in Sphenodon punctatus. J Exp Biol. 2008 Dec; 211(Pt 24):3908-14. PMID: 19043062.
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    76. Ross CF, Bohlscheid J, Weller K. Influence of visual masking technique on the assessment of 2 red wines by trained and consumer assessors. J Food Sci. 2008 Aug; 73(6):S279-85. PMID: 19241572.
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    77. Herrel A, Schaerlaeken V, Ross C, Meyers J, Nishikawa K, Abdala V, Manzano A, Aerts P. Electromyography and the evolution of motor control: limitations and insights. . 2008 Aug; 48(2):261-71. PMID: 21669789.
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    78. Ross CF, Eckhardt A, Herrel A, Hylander WL, Metzger KA, Schaerlaeken V, Washington RL, Williams SH. Modulation of intra-oral processing in mammals and lepidosaurs. . 2007 Jul; 47(1):118-36. PMID: 21672825.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Herrel A, Schaerlaeken V, Meyers JJ, Metzger KA, Ross CF. The evolution of cranial design and performance in squamates: Consequences of skull-bone reduction on feeding behavior. . 2007 Jul; 47(1):107-17. PMID: 21672824.
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    80. Ross CF, Dharia R, Herring SW, Hylander WL, Liu ZJ, Rafferty KL, Ravosa MJ, Williams SH. Modulation of mandibular loading and bite force in mammals during mastication. J Exp Biol. 2007 Mar; 210(Pt 6):1046-63. PMID: 17337717.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Strait DS, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Ross CF, Dechow PC, Wood BA. Masticatory biomechanics and its relevance to early hominid phylogeny: an examination of palatal thickness using finite-element analysis. J Hum Evol. 2007 May; 52(5):585-99. PMID: 17386938.
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    82. Ross CF, Kirk EC. Evolution of eye size and shape in primates. J Hum Evol. 2007 Mar; 52(3):294-313. PMID: 17156820.
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    83. Hylander WL, Wall CE, Vinyard CJ, Ross C, Ravosa MR, Williams SH, Johnson KR. Temporalis function in anthropoids and strepsirrhines: an EMG study. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005 Sep; 128(1):35-56. PMID: 15714512.
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    84. Richmond BG, Wright BW, Grosse I, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Spencer MA, Strait DS. Finite element analysis in functional morphology. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Apr; 283(2):259-74. PMID: 15747355.
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    85. Ross CF. Finite element analysis in vertebrate biomechanics. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Apr; 283(2):253-8. PMID: 15754323.
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    86. Strait DS, Wang Q, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Patel BA. Modeling elastic properties in finite-element analysis: how much precision is needed to produce an accurate model? Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Apr; 283(2):275-87. PMID: 15747346.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Metzger KA, Daniel WJ, Ross CF. Comparison of beam theory and finite-element analysis with in vivo bone strain data from the alligator cranium. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Apr; 283(2):331-48. PMID: 15747347.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Ross CF, Patel BA, Slice DE, Strait DS, Dechow PC, Richmond BG, Spencer MA. Modeling masticatory muscle force in finite element analysis: sensitivity analysis using principal coordinates analysis. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Apr; 283(2):288-99. PMID: 15747351.
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    89. Ross CF, Metzger KA. Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls. Ann Anat. 2004 Dec; 186(5-6):387-96. PMID: 15646269.
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    90. Dominy NJ, Ross CF, Smith TD. Evolution of the special senses in primates: past, present, and future. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004 Nov; 281(1):1078-82. PMID: 15470667.
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    91. Coleman MN, Ross CF. Primate auditory diversity and its influence on hearing performance. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004 Nov; 281(1):1123-37. PMID: 15470672.
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    92. Ross CF, Henneberg M, Ravosa MJ, Richard S. Curvilinear, geometric and phylogenetic modeling of basicranial flexion: is it adaptive, is it constrained? J Hum Evol. 2004 Feb; 46(2):185-213. PMID: 14871562.
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    93. Ross CF. In vivo function of the craniofacial haft: the interorbital "pillar". Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001 Oct; 116(2):108-39. PMID: 11590585.
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    94. Heesy CP, Ross CF. Evolution of activity patterns and chromatic vision in primates: morphometrics, genetics and cladistics. J Hum Evol. 2001 Feb; 40(2):111-49. PMID: 11161957.
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    95. Ross CF, Hylander WL. Electromyography of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles of owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) and the function of the postorbital septum. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000 Aug; 112(4):455-68. PMID: 10918124.
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    96. Hylander WL, Ravosa MJ, Ross CF, Wall CE, Johnson KR. Symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force: an EMG study. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000 Aug; 112(4):469-92. PMID: 10918125.
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    97. Ross CF, Covert HH. The petrosal of Omomys carteri and the evolution of the primate basicranium. J Hum Evol. 2000 Aug; 39(2):225-51. PMID: 10968930.
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    98. Lieberman DE, Ross CF, Ravosa MJ. The primate cranial base: ontogeny, function, and integration. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000; Suppl 31:117-69. PMID: 11123839.
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    99. Strait DS, Ross CF. Kinematic data on primate head and neck posture: implications for the evolution of basicranial flexion and an evaluation of registration planes used in paleoanthropology. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999 Feb; 108(2):205-22. PMID: 9988382.
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    100. Hylander WL, Ravosa MJ, Ross CF, Johnson KR. Mandibular corpus strain in primates: further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1998 Nov; 107(3):257-71. PMID: 9821491.
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    101. Ross CF, Hylander WL. In vivo and in vitro bone strain in the owl monkey circumorbital region and the function of the postorbital septum. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996 Oct; 101(2):183-215. PMID: 8893085.
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    102. Ross C. Adaptive explanation for the origins of the anthropoidea (primates). Am J Primatol. 1996; 40(3):205-230. PMID: 31918518.
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    103. Ravosa MJ, Ross CF. Craniodental allometry and heterochrony in two howler monkeys: Alouatta seniculus and A. palliata. Am J Primatol. 1994; 33(4):277-299. PMID: 31936940.
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    104. Ross CF, Ravosa MJ. Basicranial flexion, relative brain size, and facial kyphosis in nonhuman primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1993 Jul; 91(3):305-24. PMID: 8333488.
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