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Christopher Froelich

InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    R01AI044941     (FROELICH, CHRISTOPHER JOHN)Jun 1, 2000 - Jan 31, 2012
    Molecular Mechanism of Granule-mediated Apoptosis
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Santiago L, Menaa C, Arias M, Martin P, Metkar S, Erill N, Gonzalez-Rumayor V, Esser E, Raja S, Simon MM, Sprague SM, Gabay C, Martinez-Lostao L, Froelich CJ, Jaime-Sánchez P, Comas L, Galvez EM, Pardo J. Granzyme A Contributes to Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice Through Stimulation of Osteoclastogenesis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Feb; 69(2):320-334. PMID: 27598995.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    2. Wensink AC, Kok HM, Meeldijk J, Fermie J, Froelich CJ, Hack CE, Bovenschen N. Granzymes A and K differentially potentiate LPS-induced cytokine response. Cell Death Discov. 2016; 2:16084. PMID: 28028441; PMCID: PMC5149580.
      Citations: 15     
    3. Simon MM, Froelich CJ, Catalán E, Jaime-Sánchez P, Aguiló N, Pardo J. Mouse cytotoxic T cell-derived granzyme B activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway in a Bim-dependent fashion. J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 13; 290(11):6868-77. PMID: 25605735; PMCID: PMC4358112.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. Gilbert RJ, Dalla Serra M, Froelich CJ, Wallace MI, Anderluh G. Membrane pore formation at protein-lipid interfaces. Trends Biochem Sci. 2014 Nov; 39(11):510-6. PMID: 25440714.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    5. Metkar SS, Marchioretto M, Antonini V, Lunelli L, Wang B, Gilbert RJ, Anderluh G, Roth R, Pooga M, Pardo J, Heuser JE, Serra MD, Froelich CJ. Perforin oligomers form arcs in cellular membranes: a locus for intracellular delivery of granzymes. Cell Death Differ. 2015 Jan; 22(1):74-85. PMID: 25146929; PMCID: PMC4262768.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Alcaraz A, Simon MM, Froelich CJ, Arias MA, Jiménez de Bagües MP, Aguiló N, Menao S, Hervás-Stubbs S, de Martino A, Pardo J. Elucidating sources and roles of granzymes A and B during bacterial infection and sepsis. Cell Rep. 2014 Jul 24; 8(2):420-9. PMID: 25017060.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Spencer CT, Abate G, Sakala IG, Xia M, Truscott SM, Eickhoff CS, Linn R, Blazevic A, Metkar SS, Peng G, Froelich CJ, Hoft DF. Granzyme A produced by ?(9)d(2) T cells induces human macrophages to inhibit growth of an intracellular pathogen. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan; 9(1):e1003119. PMID: 23326234; PMCID: PMC3542113.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. Gilbert RJ, Mikelj M, Dalla Serra M, Froelich CJ, Anderluh G. Effects of MACPF/CDC proteins on lipid membranes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013 Jun; 70(12):2083-98. PMID: 22983385.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Wallich R, Metkar SS, Froelich CJ, Simon MM, Borner C, Joeckel LT. Interleukin-1R signaling is essential for induction of proapoptotic CD8 T cells, viral clearance, and pathology during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. J Virol. 2012 Aug; 86(16):8713-9. PMID: 22674984; PMCID: PMC3421753.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Praper T, Sonnen AF, Kladnik A, Andrighetti AO, Viero G, Morris KJ, Volpi E, Lunelli L, Dalla Serra M, Froelich CJ, Gilbert RJ, Anderluh G. Perforin activity at membranes leads to invaginations and vesicle formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Dec 27; 108(52):21016-21. PMID: 22173634; PMCID: PMC3248536.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Metkar SS, Wang B, Catalan E, Anderluh G, Gilbert RJ, Pardo J, Froelich CJ. Perforin rapidly induces plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24286. PMID: 21931672; PMCID: PMC3171411.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Froelich C, Metkar S. Intracellular trafficking of perforin: to thwart a killer. Immunity. 2011 Jun 24; 34(6):823-5. PMID: 21703535; PMCID: PMC3151722.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    13. Wallich R, Martin P, Sanchez-Martinez D, Weber FC, Martin SF, Borner C, Pardo J, Froelich C, Simon MM, Joeckel LT. Mouse granzyme K has pro-inflammatory potential. Cell Death Differ. 2011 Jul; 18(7):1112-9. PMID: 21311565; PMCID: PMC3131959.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Praper T, Sonnen A, Viero G, Kladnik A, Froelich CJ, Anderluh G, Dalla Serra M, Gilbert RJ. Human perforin employs different avenues to damage membranes. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 28; 286(4):2946-55. PMID: 20889983; PMCID: PMC3024789.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    15. Praper T, Besenicar MP, Istinic H, Podlesek Z, Metkar SS, Froelich CJ, Anderluh G. Human perforin permeabilizing activity, but not binding to lipid membranes, is affected by pH. Mol Immunol. 2010 Sep; 47(15):2492-504. PMID: 20580434.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    16. Martin P, Schill N, Berg M, Froelich CJ, Wallich R, Simon MM, Pardo J, Jöckel L. Granzyme B-induced and caspase 3-dependent cleavage of gelsolin by mouse cytotoxic T cells modifies cytoskeleton dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11; 285(24):18918-27. PMID: 20395300; PMCID: PMC2881814.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Han J, Goldstein LA, Hou W, Froelich CJ, Watkins SC, Rabinowich H. Deregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential by mitochondrial insertion of granzyme B and direct Hax-1 cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 16; 285(29):22461-72. PMID: 20388708; PMCID: PMC2903387.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Simon MM, Froelich CJ, Pardo J. Granzyme A is a proinflammatory protease. Blood. 2009 Oct 29; 114(18):3968; author reply 3969-70. PMID: 19875524.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    19. Aguilo JI, Anel A, Martin P, Joeckel L, Borner C, Wallich R, Froelich CJ, Simon MM, Pardo J, Müllbacher A. The biology of cytotoxic cell granule exocytosis pathway: granzymes have evolved to induce cell death and inflammation. Microbes Infect. 2009 Apr; 11(4):452-9. PMID: 19249384.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    20. Froelich CJ, Pardo J, Simon MM. Granule-associated serine proteases: granzymes might not just be killer proteases. Trends Immunol. 2009 Mar; 30(3):117-23. PMID: 19217825.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Metkar SS, Menaa C, Pardo J, Wang B, Wallich R, Freudenberg M, Kim S, Raja SM, Shi L, Simon MM, Froelich CJ. Human and mouse granzyme A induce a proinflammatory cytokine response. Immunity. 2008 Nov 14; 29(5):720-33. PMID: 18951048.
      Citations: 131     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Rajalingam K, Sharma M, Lohmann C, Oswald M, Thieck O, Froelich CJ, Rudel T. Mcl-1 is a key regulator of apoptosis resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells. PLoS One. 2008 Sep 01; 3(9):e3102. PMID: 18769617; PMCID: PMC2518856.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. Bovenschen N, de Koning PJ, Quadir R, Broekhuizen R, Damen JM, Froelich CJ, Slijper M, Kummer JA. NK cell protease granzyme M targets alpha-tubulin and disorganizes the microtubule network. J Immunol. 2008 Jun 15; 180(12):8184-91. PMID: 18523284.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Besenicar MP, Metkar S, Wang B, Froelich CJ, Anderluh G. Granzyme B translocates across the lipid membrane only in the presence of lytic agents. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 04; 371(3):391-4. PMID: 18439904.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    
    25. Hallermalm K, Seki K, De Geer A, Motyka B, Bleackley RC, Jager MJ, Froelich CJ, Kiessling R, Levitsky V, Levitskaya J. Modulation of the tumor cell phenotype by IFN-gamma results in resistance of uveal melanoma cells to granule-mediated lysis by cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 15; 180(6):3766-74. PMID: 18322182.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. Swanson R, Raghavendra MP, Zhang W, Froelich C, Gettins PG, Olson ST. Serine and cysteine proteases are translocated to similar extents upon formation of covalent complexes with serpins. Fluorescence perturbation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer mapping of the protease binding site in CrmA complexes with granzyme B and caspase-1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 26; 282(4):2305-13. PMID: 17142451.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Zuber B, Levitsky V, Paulie S, Samarina A, Metkar S, Callender GG, Froelich C, Ahlborg N, Jönsson G, Grundström S, Norell H. Detection of human perforin by ELISpot and ELISA: ex vivo identification of virus-specific cells. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Jul; 302(1-2):13-25. PMID: 16005014.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Buzza MS, Zamurs L, Sun J, Bird CH, Smith AI, Trapani JA, Froelich CJ, Nice EC, Bird PI. Extracellular matrix remodeling by human granzyme B via cleavage of vitronectin, fibronectin, and laminin. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24; 280(25):23549-58. PMID: 15843372.
      Citations: 102     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Raja SM, Metkar SS, Wang B, Russin WA, Pipalia NH, Menaa C, Belting M, Cao X, Dressel R, Froelich CJ, Höning S. A novel mechanism for protein delivery: granzyme B undergoes electrostatic exchange from serglycin to target cells. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 27; 280(21):20752-61. PMID: 15788411.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Metkar SS, Wang B, Froelich CJ. Detection of functional cell surface perforin by flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Apr; 299(1-2):117-27. PMID: 15914196.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    31. Azuma T, Otsuki T, Kuzushima K, Froelich CJ, Fujita S, Yasukawa M. Myeloma cells are highly sensitive to the granule exocytosis pathway mediated by WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 01; 10(21):7402-12. PMID: 15534117.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. Bots M, Kolfschoten IG, Bres SA, Rademaker MT, de Roo GM, Franken KL, Hahne M, Froelich CJ, Melief CJ, Offringa R, Medema JP, Krüse M. SPI-CI and SPI-6 cooperate in the protection from effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Blood. 2005 Feb 01; 105(3):1153-61. PMID: 15454490.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Phillips T, Opferman JT, Shah R, Liu N, Froelich CJ, Ashton-Rickardt PG. A role for the granzyme B inhibitor serine protease inhibitor 6 in CD8+ memory cell homeostasis. J Immunol. 2004 Sep 15; 173(6):3801-9. PMID: 15356127.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Metkar SS, Froelich CJ. Human neutrophils lack granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin. Blood. 2004 Aug 01; 104(3):905-6; author reply 907-8. PMID: 15265799.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. Froelich CJ, Metkar SS, Raja SM. Granzyme B-mediated apoptosis--the elephant and the blind men? Cell Death Differ. 2004 Apr; 11(4):369-71. PMID: 14726962.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    36. Lee YJ, Froelich CJ, Fujita N, Tsuruo T, Kim JH. Reconstitution of caspase-3 confers low glucose-enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand cytotoxicity and Akt cleavage. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15; 10(6):1894-900. PMID: 15041704.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    37. Han J, Goldstein LA, Gastman BR, Froelich CJ, Yin XM, Rabinowich H. Degradation of Mcl-1 by granzyme B: implications for Bim-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic events. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 21; 279(21):22020-9. PMID: 15014070.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Raja SM, Seidler T, Froelich CJ, von Figura K, Dressel R, Höning S, Günther E. Granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity does not involve the mannose 6-phosphate receptors on target cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 07; 279(19):20200-10. PMID: 14985351.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Froelich CJ. Right place, right time. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):124-5. PMID: 14749780.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Vermijlen D, Luo D, Froelich CJ, Medema JP, Kummer JA, Willems E, Braet F, Wisse E. Pit cells exclusively kill P815 tumor cells by the perforin/granzyme pathway. Comp Hepatol. 2004 Jan 14; 3 Suppl 1:S58. PMID: 14960210; PMCID: PMC2410270.
      Citations: 1     
    41. Liu N, Raja SM, Zazzeroni F, Metkar SS, Shah R, Zhang M, Wang Y, Russin WA, Lee JC, Peter ME, Froelich CJ, Franzoso G, Ashton-Rickardt PG, Brömme D. NF-kappaB protects from the lysosomal pathway of cell death. EMBO J. 2003 Oct 01; 22(19):5313-22. PMID: 14517268; PMCID: PMC204493.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Raja SM, Metkar SS, Froelich CJ. Cytotoxic granule-mediated apoptosis: unraveling the complex mechanism. Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Oct; 15(5):528-32. PMID: 14499261.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Odeberg J, Browne H, Metkar S, Froelich CJ, Cosman D, Brandén L, Söderberg-Nauclér C. The human cytomegalovirus protein UL16 mediates increased resistance to natural killer cell cytotoxicity through resistance to cytolytic proteins. J Virol. 2003 Apr; 77(8):4539-45. PMID: 12663760; PMCID: PMC152133.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Mackewicz CE, Wang B, Metkar S, Richey M, Froelich CJ, Levy JA. Lack of the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor in CD8+ cell granules. Blood. 2003 Jul 01; 102(1):180-3. PMID: 12649153.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    45. Metkar SS, Wang B, Ebbs ML, Kim JH, Lee YJ, Raja SM, Froelich CJ. Granzyme B activates procaspase-3 which signals a mitochondrial amplification loop for maximal apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003 Mar 17; 160(6):875-85. PMID: 12629051; PMCID: PMC2173758.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Trapani JA, Sutton VR, Thia KY, Li YQ, Froelich CJ, Jans DA, Sandrin MS, Browne KA. A clathrin/dynamin- and mannose-6-phosphate receptor-independent pathway for granzyme B-induced cell death. J Cell Biol. 2003 Jan 20; 160(2):223-33. PMID: 12538642; PMCID: PMC2172645.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Raja SM, Wang B, Dantuluri M, Desai UR, Demeler B, Spiegel K, Metkar SS, Froelich CJ, Raja SM, Wang B, Dantuluri M, Desai UR, Demeler B, Spiegel K, Metkar SS, Froelich CJ. Cytotoxic cell granule-mediated apoptosis. Characterization of the macromolecular complex of granzyme B with serglycin. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 20; 277(51):49523-30. PMID: 12388539.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    48. Vermijlen D, Luo D, Froelich CJ, Medema JP, Kummer JA, Willems E, Braet F, Wisse E, Vermijlen D, Luo D, Froelich CJ, Medema JP, Kummer JA, Willems E, Braet F, Wisse E. Hepatic natural killer cells exclusively kill splenic/blood natural killer-resistant tumor cells by the perforin/granzyme pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Oct; 72(4):668-76. PMID: 12377935.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Metkar SS, Wang B, Aguilar-Santelises M, Raja SM, Uhlin-Hansen L, Podack E, Trapani JA, Froelich CJ. Cytotoxic cell granule-mediated apoptosis: perforin delivers granzyme B-serglycin complexes into target cells without plasma membrane pore formation. Immunity. 2002 Mar; 16(3):417-28. PMID: 11911826.
      Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Uzzo RG, Kolenko V, Froelich CJ, Tannenbaum C, Molto L, Novick AC, Bander NH, Bukowski R, Finke JH, Uzzo RG, Kolenko V, Froelich CJ, Tannenbaum C, Molto L, Novick AC, Bander NH, Bukowski R, Finke JH. The T cell death knell: immune-mediated tumor death in renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Oct; 7(10):3276-81. PMID: 11595725.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    51. Jerome KR, Chen Z, Lang R, Torres MR, Hofmeister J, Smith S, Fox R, Froelich CJ, Corey L. HSV and glycoprotein J inhibit caspase activation and apoptosis induced by granzyme B or Fas. J Immunol. 2001 Oct 01; 167(7):3928-35. PMID: 11564811.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    52. Kaspar AA, Okada S, Kumar J, Poulain FR, Drouvalakis KA, Kelekar A, Hanson DA, Kluck RM, Hitoshi Y, Johnson DE, Froelich CJ, Thompson CB, Newmeyer DD, Anel A, Clayberger C, Krensky AM. A distinct pathway of cell-mediated apoptosis initiated by granulysin. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 01; 167(1):350-6. PMID: 11418670.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    53. Vermijlen D, Froelich CJ, Luo D, Suarez-Huerta N, Robaye B, Wisse E. Perforin and granzyme B induce apoptosis in FasL-resistant colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2001 Jun; 50(4):212-7. PMID: 11459173.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Metkar SS, Aguilar-Santelises M, Wang B, Froelich CJ. Flow cytometry cannot assess surface binding of perforin to target cells. Blood. 2001 Apr 01; 97(7):2181-3. PMID: 11286222.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Johnstone RW, Tainton KM, Ruefli AA, Froelich CJ, Cerruti L, Jane SM, Smyth MJ. P-glycoprotein does not protect cells against cytolysis induced by pore-forming proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18; 276(20):16667-73. PMID: 11278745.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    56. Ronday HK, van der Laan WH, Tak PP, de Roos JA, Bank RA, TeKoppele JM, Froelich CJ, Hack CE, Hogendoorn PC, Breedveld FC, Verheijen JH. Human granzyme B mediates cartilage proteoglycan degradation and is expressed at the invasive front of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001 Jan; 40(1):55-61. PMID: 11157142.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Yang XH, Sladek TL, Liu X, Butler BR, Froelich CJ, Thor AD, Yang XH, Sladek TL, Liu X, Butler BR, Froelich CJ, Thor AD. Reconstitution of caspase 3 sensitizes MCF-7 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2001 Jan 01; 61(1):348-54. PMID: 11196185.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    58. Kawasaki Y, Saito T, Shirota-Someya Y, Ikegami Y, Komano H, Lee MH, Froelich CJ, Shinohara N, Takayama H. Cell death-associated translocation of plasma membrane components induced by CTL. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4641-8. PMID: 10779768.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Pink JJ, Wuerzberger-Davis S, Tagliarino C, Planchon SM, Yang X, Froelich CJ, Boothman DA. Activation of a cysteine protease in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells during beta-lapachone-mediated apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2000 Mar 15; 255(2):144-55. PMID: 10694431.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    60. Mackewicz CE, Lieberman J, Froelich C, Levy JA. HIV virions and HIV infection in vitro are unaffected by human granzymes A and B. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Mar 01; 16(4):367-72. PMID: 10716374.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    61. Spaeny-Dekking EH, Kamp AM, Froelich CJ, Hack CE. Extracellular granzyme A, complexed to proteoglycans, is protected against inactivation by protease inhibitors. Blood. 2000 Feb 15; 95(4):1465-72. PMID: 10666226.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    62. Shi L, Yang X, Froelich CJ, Greenberg AH. Purification and use of granzyme B. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 322:125-43. PMID: 10914010.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Browne KA, Blink E, Sutton VR, Froelich CJ, Jans DA, Trapani JA. Cytosolic delivery of granzyme B by bacterial toxins: evidence that endosomal disruption, in addition to transmembrane pore formation, is an important function of perforin. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Dec; 19(12):8604-15. PMID: 10567584; PMCID: PMC84991.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    64. Galvin JP, Spaeny-Dekking LH, Wang B, Seth P, Hack CE, Froelich CJ. Apoptosis induced by granzyme B-glycosaminoglycan complexes: implications for granule-mediated apoptosis in vivo. J Immunol. 1999 May 01; 162(9):5345-50. PMID: 10228010.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    65. Tak PP, Spaeny-Dekking L, Kraan MC, Breedveld FC, Froelich CJ, Hack CE. The levels of soluble granzyme A and B are elevated in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clin Exp Immunol. 1999 May; 116(2):366-70. PMID: 10337032; PMCID: PMC1905268.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Jans DA, Sutton VR, Jans P, Froelich CJ, Trapani JA. BCL-2 blocks perforin-induced nuclear translocation of granzymes concomitant with protection against the nuclear events of apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1999 Feb 12; 274(7):3953-61. PMID: 9933585.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Yang X, Stennicke HR, Wang B, Green DR, Srinivasan A, Seth P, Salvesen GS, Froelich CJ, Jänicke RU. Granzyme B mimics apical caspases. Description of a unified pathway for trans-activation of executioner caspase-3 and -7. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 18; 273(51):34278-83. PMID: 9852092.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    68. Stennicke HR, Shin H, Deveraux Q, Wolf BB, Yang X, Zhou Q, Ellerby HM, Ellerby LM, Bredesen D, Green DR, Reed JC, Froelich CJ, Salvesen GS, Jürgensmeier JM. Pro-caspase-3 is a major physiologic target of caspase-8. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 16; 273(42):27084-90. PMID: 9765224.
      Citations: 183     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    69. Kataoka T, Hahne M, Schneider P, Irmler M, Thome M, Froelich CJ, Tschopp J, Schröter M. FLIP prevents apoptosis induced by death receptors but not by perforin/granzyme B, chemotherapeutic drugs, and gamma irradiation. J Immunol. 1998 Oct 15; 161(8):3936-42. PMID: 9780161.
      Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    70. Stenger S, Hanson DA, Teitelbaum R, Dewan P, Niazi KR, Froelich CJ, Ganz T, Thoma-Uszynski S, Bogdan C, Porcelli SA, Bloom BR, Krensky AM, Modlin RL, Melián A. An antimicrobial activity of cytolytic T cells mediated by granulysin. Science. 1998 Oct 02; 282(5386):121-5. PMID: 9756476.
      Citations: 347     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    71. Jans DA, Briggs LJ, Jans P, Froelich CJ, Parasivam G, Kumar S, Sutton VR, Trapani JA. Nuclear targeting of the serine protease granzyme A (fragmentin-1). J Cell Sci. 1998 Sep; 111 ( Pt 17):2645-54. PMID: 9701563.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Pinkoski MJ, Hobman M, Heibein JA, Tomaselli K, Li F, Seth P, Froelich CJ, Bleackley RC. Entry and trafficking of granzyme B in target cells during granzyme B-perforin-mediated apoptosis. Blood. 1998 Aug 01; 92(3):1044-54. PMID: 9680374.
      Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Jackson DS, Fraser SA, Ni LM, Kam CM, Winkler U, Johnson DA, Froelich CJ, Hudig D, Powers JC. Synthesis and evaluation of diphenyl phosphonate esters as inhibitors of the trypsin-like granzymes A and K and mast cell tryptase. J Med Chem. 1998 Jun 18; 41(13):2289-301. PMID: 9632362.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Trapani JA, Jans P, Smyth MJ, Froelich CJ, Williams EA, Sutton VR, Jans DA. Perforin-dependent nuclear entry of granzyme B precedes apoptosis, and is not a consequence of nuclear membrane dysfunction. Cell Death Differ. 1998 Jun; 5(6):488-96. PMID: 10200500.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. Spaeny-Dekking EH, Hanna WL, Wolbink AM, Wever PC, Kummer JA, Kummer AJ, Swaak AJ, Middeldorp JM, Huisman HG, Froelich CJ, Hack CE. Extracellular granzymes A and B in humans: detection of native species during CTL responses in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 1998 Apr 01; 160(7):3610-6. PMID: 9531325.
      Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    76. Wever PC, Van Der Vliet HJ, Spaeny LH, Wolbink AM, Van Diepen FN, Froelich CJ, Hack CE, ten Berge IJ. The CD8+ granzyme B+ T-cell subset in peripheral blood from healthy individuals contains activated and apoptosis-prone cells. Immunology. 1998 Mar; 93(3):383-9. PMID: 9640249; PMCID: PMC1364087.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    77. Froelich CJ, Dixit VM, Yang X. Lymphocyte granule-mediated apoptosis: matters of viral mimicry and deadly proteases. Immunol Today. 1998 Jan; 19(1):30-6. PMID: 9465486.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    78. Talanian RV, Yang X, Turbov J, Seth P, Ghayur T, Casiano CA, Orth K, Froelich CJ. Granule-mediated killing: pathways for granzyme B-initiated apoptosis. J Exp Med. 1997 Oct 20; 186(8):1323-31. PMID: 9334372; PMCID: PMC2199091.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    79. Hommel-Berrey GA, Bochan MR, Montel AH, Goebel WS, Froelich CJ, Brahmi Z. Granzyme B independently of perforin mediates noncytolytic intracellular inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus. Cell Immunol. 1997 Aug 25; 180(1):1-9. PMID: 9316633.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    80. Swedler W, Wallman J, Froelich CJ, Teodorescu M. Routine measurement of IgM, IgG, and IgA rheumatoid factors: high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1997 Jun; 24(6):1037-44. PMID: 9195506.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    81. Froelich CJ, Turbov J, Hanna W. Human perforin: rapid enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) for whole cell cytotoxicity assays. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Dec 04; 229(1):44-9. PMID: 8954081.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    82. Froelich CJ, Orth K, Turbov J, Seth P, Gottlieb R, Babior B, Shah GM, Bleackley RC, Dixit VM, Hanna W. New paradigm for lymphocyte granule-mediated cytotoxicity. Target cells bind and internalize granzyme B, but an endosomolytic agent is necessary for cytosolic delivery and subsequent apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 15; 271(46):29073-9. PMID: 8910561.
      Citations: 83     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    83. Froelich CJ, Hanna WL, Poirier GG, Duriez PJ, D'Amours D, Salvesen GS, Alnemri ES, Earnshaw WC, Shah GM. Granzyme B/perforin-mediated apoptosis of Jurkat cells results in cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase to the 89-kDa apoptotic fragment and less abundant 64-kDa fragment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Oct 23; 227(3):658-65. PMID: 8885990.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    84. Duan H, Orth K, Chinnaiyan AM, Poirier GG, Froelich CJ, He WW, Dixit VM. ICE-LAP6, a novel member of the ICE/Ced-3 gene family, is activated by the cytotoxic T cell protease granzyme B. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 12; 271(28):16720-4. PMID: 8663294.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    85. Orth K, Chinnaiyan AM, Garg M, Froelich CJ, Dixit VM. The CED-3/ICE-like protease Mch2 is activated during apoptosis and cleaves the death substrate lamin A. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 12; 271(28):16443-6. PMID: 8663580.
      Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    86. Sower LE, Klimpel GR, Hanna W, Froelich CJ. Extracellular activities of human granzymes. I. Granzyme A induces IL6 and IL8 production in fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. Cell Immunol. 1996 Jul 10; 171(1):159-63. PMID: 8754861.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    87. Chinnaiyan AM, Hanna WL, Orth K, Duan H, Poirier GG, Froelich CJ, Dixit VM. Cytotoxic T-cell-derived granzyme B activates the apoptotic protease ICE-LAP3. Curr Biol. 1996 Jul 01; 6(7):897-9. PMID: 8805307.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    88. Sower LE, Froelich CJ, Allegretto N, Rose PM, Hanna WD, Klimpel GR. Extracellular activities of human granzyme A. Monocyte activation by granzyme A versus alpha-thrombin. J Immunol. 1996 Apr 01; 156(7):2585-90. PMID: 8786323.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Budiman-Mak E, Conrad KJ, Roach KE, Moore JW, Lertratanakul Y, Koch AE, Skosey JL, Froelich C, Joyce-Clark N. Can foot orthoses prevent hallux valgus deformity in rheumatoid arthritis? A randomized clinical trial. J Clin Rheumatol. 1995 Dec; 1(6):313-22. PMID: 19078008.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    
    90. Sower LE, Froelich CJ, Carney DH, Fenton JW, Klimpel GR. Thrombin induces IL-6 production in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Evidence for the involvement of the seven-transmembrane domain (STD) receptor for alpha-thrombin. J Immunol. 1995 Jul 15; 155(2):895-901. PMID: 7608566.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    91. Hanna WL, Turbov JM, Jackman HL, Tan F, Froelich CJ. Dominant chymotrypsin-like esterase activity in human lymphocyte granules is mediated by the serine carboxypeptidase called cathepsin A-like protective protein. J Immunol. 1994 Nov 15; 153(10):4663-72. PMID: 7963538.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    92. Su B, Bochan MR, Hanna WL, Froelich CJ, Brahmi Z. Human granzyme B is essential for DNA fragmentation of susceptible target cells. Eur J Immunol. 1994 Sep; 24(9):2073-80. PMID: 8088328.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    93. Froelich CJ, Zhang X, Turbov J, Hudig D, Winkler U, Hanna WL. Human granzyme B degrades aggrecan proteoglycan in matrix synthesized by chondrocytes. J Immunol. 1993 Dec 15; 151(12):7161-71. PMID: 8258716.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    94. Hanna WL, Zhang X, Turbov J, Winkler U, Hudig D, Froelich CJ. Rapid purification of cationic granule proteases: application to human granzymes. Protein Expr Purif. 1993 Oct; 4(5):398-404. PMID: 8251751.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    95. Johnston TP, Punjabi MA, Froelich CJ. Sustained delivery of interleukin-2 from a poloxamer 407 gel matrix following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Pharm Res. 1992 Mar; 9(3):425-34. PMID: 1614979.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    96. Varelas JB, Zenarosa NR, Froelich CJ. Agarose/polyacrylamide minislab gel electrophoresis of intact cartilage proteoglycans and their proteolytic degradation products. Anal Biochem. 1991 Sep 02; 197(2):396-400. PMID: 1785694.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    97. Fritsma GA, Leikin JB, Maturen AJ, Froelich CJ, Hryhorczuk DO. Detection of anticardiolipin antibody in patients with cocaine abuse. J Emerg Med. 1991; 9 Suppl 1:37-43. PMID: 1955680.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    98. Froelich CJ, Wallman J, Skosey JL, Teodorescu M. Clinical value of an integrated ELISA system for the detection of 6 autoantibodies (ssDNA, dsDNA, Sm, RNP/Sm, SSA, and SSB). J Rheumatol. 1990 Feb; 17(2):192-200. PMID: 2108246.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    99. Valdes-Dapena M, Hoffman HJ, Froelich C, Requeira O. Glomerulosclerosis in the sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatr Pathol. 1990; 10(1-2):273-9. PMID: 2315230.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    100. Heckerling PS, Froelich CJ, Schade SG. Retinal vein thrombosis in a patient with pernicious anemia and anticardiolipin antibodies. J Rheumatol. 1989 Aug; 16(8):1144-6. PMID: 2511302.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. Froelich CJ, Guiffaut S, Sosenko M, Muth K. Deficient interleukin-2-activated killer cell cytotoxicity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1989 Jan; 50(1 Pt 1):132-45. PMID: 2783399.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    102. Froelich CJ, Burkett JS, Guiffaut S, Kingsland R, Brauner D. Phytohemagglutinin induced proliferation by aged lymphocytes: reduced expression of high affinity interleukin-2 receptors and interleukin-2 secretion. Life Sci. 1988; 43(20):1583-90. PMID: 3264041.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    103. Froelich CJ. Modulation of the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction by beta-endorphin. J Neuroimmunol. 1987 Dec; 17(1):1-10. PMID: 2824556.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    104. Froelich CJ, Guiffaut S. Lysis of human T cell leukemia virus infected T and B lymphoid cells by interleukin 2-activated killer cells. J Immunol. 1987 Dec 01; 139(11):3637-43. PMID: 2824611.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    105. Pulido JS, Ward LM, Fishman GA, Goodwin JA, Froelich CJ, Sanghvi JP. Antiphospholipid antibodies associated with retinal vascular disease. Retina. 1987; 7(4):215-8. PMID: 3124231.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    106. Froelich CJ, Guiffaut S. Natural killer cells do not lyse resting or mitogen-stimulated B cells. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul. 1987; 6(1):12-8. PMID: 3494907.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    107. Froelich CJ, Guiffaut S. Induction of lymphokine activated killer cells in serum-free medium. J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 12; 86(2):205-11. PMID: 3484769.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    108. McChesney MB, Froelich CJ, Cantrell JL, Williams RC. Salmonella typhimurium mitogen induces proliferation of human B lymphocytes. Cell Immunol. 1985 Jun; 93(1):83-90. PMID: 3888415.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    109. Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. The effect of beta-endorphin on natural cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Life Sci. 1984 Jul 16; 35(3):261-5. PMID: 6087056.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    110. Sibbitt WL, Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. Interferon-alpha regulation of lymphocyte function in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1984 Jul; 32(1):70-80. PMID: 6733982.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    111. Tzamaloukas AH, Froelich CJ, Jeffery WH. High anion gap acidosis during intravenous infusion of protein hydrolysate. South Med J. 1984 May; 77(5):661-3. PMID: 6426065.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    112. Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. Separation of natural and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by differential reactivity of human mononuclear cell Fc receptors with IgG. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984 Mar; 55(3):664-70. PMID: 6368063; PMCID: PMC1535941.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    113. Sibbitt WL, Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. Abnormal interferon modulation of natural cytotoxicity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Relation to suppressive serum factors. Arthritis Rheum. 1983 Dec; 26(12):1452-9. PMID: 6651894.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    114. Froelich CJ, Sibbitt WL, Bankhurst AD. Enrichment of natural killer cells by negative selection: comparison to Percoll gradient separation method. J Immunol Methods. 1983 Nov 25; 64(3):327-33. PMID: 6366058.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    115. Sibbitt WL, Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. Natural cytotoxicity in systemic lupus erythematosus: mechanisms of suppression by inhibitory serum factors. Clin Exp Immunol. 1983 Aug; 53(2):363-70. PMID: 6883808; PMCID: PMC1535694.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    116. Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD. Natural killing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: characterization of effector cells by E-rosetting and monoclonal antibodies. Cell Immunol. 1983 May; 78(1):33-42. PMID: 6850846.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    117. Mathews PM, Froelich CJ, Sibbitt WL, Bankhurst AD. Enhancement of natural cytotoxicity by beta-endorphin. J Immunol. 1983 Apr; 130(4):1658-62. PMID: 6300232.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    118. Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD, Warner NL. Characterization of E-rosette-positive Fc-receptor-bearing cells by flow cytometry. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1982 Jan; 22(1):105-17. PMID: 6214345.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    119. Froelich CJ, Tai AS, Bankhurst AD, Warner NL. Human E-rosette-positive cells which bind monomeric IgG mediate natural cytotoxicity. Cell Immunol. 1982 Jan 01; 66(1):190-4. PMID: 7083331.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    120. Williams RC, Froelich CJ, Kilpatrick K, Crowe WE, Levinson JE. T gamma subset specificity of lymphocyte reactive factors in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus sera. Arthritis Rheum. 1981 Apr; 24(4):585-91. PMID: 6971106.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    121. Froelich CJ, Bankhurst AD, Crowe WE, Williams RC, Warner NL, Levinson JE. Flow cytometry and cytoadherence studies of sera from children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and normal controls. Arthritis Rheum. 1981 Mar; 24(3):457-63. PMID: 6971100.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    122. Searles RP, Davis LE, Hermanson S, Froelich CJ. Lymphocytotoxic antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet. 1981 Jan 31; 1(8214):273. PMID: 6109920.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    123. Froelich CJ, Searles RP, Davis LE, Goodwin JS. A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome with immunologic abnormalities. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Oct; 93(4):563-5. PMID: 7436188.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    124. Froelich CJ, Goodwin JS, Bankhurst AD, Williams RC. Pregnancy, a temporary fetal graft of suppressor cells in autoimmune disease? Am J Med. 1980 Sep; 69(3):329-31. PMID: 6448001.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    125. Froelich CJ, Hashimoto F, Searles RP, Bankhurst AD. D-penicillamine-induced myasthenia gravis in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1979 Mar-Apr; 6(2):237-9. PMID: 458795.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    126. Selinger DS, Chongsiriwatana K, Froelich CJ, Vogel AV, Kisch AL. Telltale mouth flora: a clue to the diagnosis of factitious recurrent thigh abscesses. South Med J. 1979 Feb; 72(2):225-6. PMID: 424800.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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