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Karen Drukker

TitleResearch Associate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentRadiology-Basic Sciences
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Drukker has been involved in research at the University of Chicago for 20+ years. Her interests include machine learning applications in the detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer, and more recently, of COVID-19 patients. Rigorous training/testing protocols, generalizability, and performance evaluation of machine learning algorithms have been a main focus.

    Dr. Drukker published over 50 peer-reviewed papers on artificial intelligence (AI) in medical imaging, mostly related to breast image analysis, with a focus on multimodality detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer and on performance evaluation methods. She served as Associate Editor or as Editorial Board Member for many professional peer-reviewed journals, e.g., Medical Physics, Journal of Medical Imaging, and the British Journal of Radiology, and as chair or member of scientific committees for many medical imaging conferences, e.g., the Society for Optics and Photonics Medical Imaging Conference and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine annual meetings. Recently, she was awarded Fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine for her contributions to medical physics. She also co-authored several book chapters and is co-inventor on 2 patents.

    Dr. Drukker has been actively involved in research at, as well as in organizational aspects of, the Medical Imaging and Data Resource Center (MIDRC, hosted at the University of Chicago) since its launch in August 2020.

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    2020Fellow , American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Douglas L, Bhattacharjee R, Fuhrman J, Drukker K, Hu Q, Edwards A, Sheth D, Giger M. U-Net breast lesion segmentations for breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Nov; 10(6):064502. PMID: 37990686; PMCID: PMC10658935.
    2. Baughan N, Whitney HM, Drukker K, Sahiner B, Hu T, Kim GH, McNitt-Gray M, Myers KJ, Giger ML. Sequestration of imaging studies in MIDRC: stratified sampling to balance demographic characteristics of patients in a multi-institutional data commons. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Nov; 10(6):064501. PMID: 38074627; PMCID: PMC10704184.
    3. Vergara D, Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Drukker K, Vergara D, Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Drukker K, CADSC (TG 273). Best Practices for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Medical Imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2024 Feb; 21(2):341-343. PMID: 37925095.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    4. Mello-Thoms C, Drukker K, Taylor-Phillips S, Iftekharuddin K, Gavrielides M. Special Section Editorial: Artificial Intelligence for Medical Imaging in Clinical Practice. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Sep; 10(5):051801. PMID: 37915406; PMCID: PMC10617546.
    5. Naqa IE, Drukker K. AI in imaging and therapy: innovations, ethics, and impact - introductory editorial. Br J Radiol. 2023 10; 96(1150):20239004. PMID: 38011226; PMCID: PMC10546442.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    6. Armato S, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Armato SG, Hadjiiski L. AI in medical imaging grand challenges: translation from competition to research benefit and patient care. Br J Radiol. 2023 Oct; 96(1150):20221152. PMID: 37698542; PMCID: PMC10546459.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Li H, Drukker K, Hu Q, Whitney HM, Fuhrman JD, Giger ML. Predicting intensive care need for COVID-19 patients using deep learning on chest radiography. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Jul; 10(4):044504. PMID: 37608852; PMCID: PMC10440543.
    8. Whitney HM, Drukker K, Vieceli M, Van Dusen A, de Oliveira M, Abe H, Giger ML. Role of sureness in evaluating AI/CADx: Lesion-based repeatability of machine learning classification performance on breast MRI. Med Phys. 2023 Aug 21. PMID: 37602841.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    9. Whitney HM, Baughan N, Myers KJ, Drukker K, Gichoya J, Bower B, Chen W, Gruszauskas N, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Koyejo S, Sá RC, Sahiner B, Zhang Z, Giger ML. Longitudinal assessment of demographic representativeness in the Medical Imaging and Data Resource Center open data commons. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Nov; 10(6):61105. PMID: 37469387; PMCID: PMC10353566.
      Citations: 2     
    10. Drukker K, Chen W, Gichoya J, Gruszauskas N, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Koyejo S, Myers K, Sahiner B, Whitney H, Zhang Z, Giger M, Sá RC. Toward fairness in artificial intelligence for medical image analysis: identification and mitigation of potential biases in the roadmap from data collection to model deployment. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2023 Nov; 10(6):061104. PMID: 37125409; PMCID: PMC10129875.
      Citations: 7     
    11. Konz N, Buda M, Gu H, Saha A, Yang J, Park J, Witowski J, Geras KJ, Shoshan Y, Gilboa-Solomon F, Khapun D, Ratner V, Barkan E, Ozery-Flato M, Omigbodun A, Marasinou C, Nakhaei N, Hsu W, Sahu P, Hossain MB, Lee J, Santos C, Przelaskowski A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Bearce B, Cha K, Farahani K, Petrick N, Hadjiiski L, Drukker K, Armato SG, Mazurowski MA, Chledowski J, Martí R. A Competition, Benchmark, Code, and Data for Using Artificial Intelligence to Detect Lesions in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis. JAMA Netw Open. 2023 02 01; 6(2):e230524. PMID: 36821110; PMCID: PMC9951043.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Hadjiiski L, Cha K, Chan HP, Drukker K, Morra L, Sahiner B, Yoshida H, Chen Q, Deserno TM, Greenspan H, Huisman H, Huo Z, Mazurchuk R, Petrick N, Regge D, Samala R, Summers RM, Suzuki K, Tourassi G, Vergara D, Armato SG, Näppi JJ. AAPM task group report 273: Recommendations on best practices for AI and machine learning for computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging. Med Phys. 2023 Feb; 50(2):e1-e24. PMID: 36565447.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Whitney HM, Drukker K, Giger ML. Performance metric curve analysis framework to assess impact of the decision variable threshold, disease prevalence, and dataset variability in two-class classification. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2022 May; 9(3):035502. PMID: 35656541; PMCID: PMC9152992.
    14. Hu Q, Drukker K, Giger ML. Role of standard and soft tissue chest radiography images in deep-learning-based early diagnosis of COVID-19. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 Jan; 8(Suppl 1):014503. PMID: 34595245; PMCID: PMC8478672.
      Citations: 8     
    15. El Naqa I, Boone JM, Benedict SH, Goodsitt MM, Chan HP, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Ruan D, Sahiner B. AI in medical physics: guidelines for publication. Med Phys. 2021 Sep; 48(9):4711-4714. PMID: 34545957.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    16. Leong LT, Malkov S, Drukker K, Niell BL, Sadowski P, Wolfgruber T, Greenwood HI, Joe BN, Kerlikowske K, Giger ML, Shepherd JA. Dual-energy three-compartment breast imaging for compositional biomarkers to improve detection of malignant lesions. Commun Med (Lond). 2021; 1:29. PMID: 35602210; PMCID: PMC9053198.
    17. Whitney HM, Drukker K, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Medved M, Karczmar G, Giger ML. Robustness of radiomic features of benign breast lesions and hormone receptor positive/HER2-negative cancers across DCE-MR magnet strengths. Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 10; 82:111-121. PMID: 34174331; PMCID: PMC8386988.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Drukker K, Kontos D, Li H. Special Section Guest Editorial: Radiogenomics in Prognosis and Treatment. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 May; 8(3):031901. PMID: 34179216; PMCID: PMC8223165.
    19. Petrick N, Akbar S, Cha KH, Nofech-Mozes S, Sahiner B, Gavrielides MA, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Drukker K, Martel AL, BreastPathQ Challenge Group. SPIE-AAPM-NCI BreastPathQ challenge: an image analysis challenge for quantitative tumor cellularity assessment in breast cancer histology images following neoadjuvant treatment. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 May; 8(3):034501. PMID: 33987451; PMCID: PMC8107263.
      Citations: 3     
    20. Kirby J, Prior F, Petrick N, Hadjiski L, Farahani K, Drukker K, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Glide-Hurst C, El Naqa I. Introduction to special issue on datasets hosted in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Med Phys. 2020 Dec; 47(12):6026-6028. PMID: 33202038.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Drukker K, Edwards A, Doyle C, Papaioannou J, Kulkarni K, Giger ML. Breast MRI radiomics for the pretreatment prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer patients. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jul; 6(3):034502. PMID: 31592438; PMCID: PMC6768440.
      Citations: 12     
    22. Yeh AC, Li H, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Khramtsova G, Drukker K, Edwards A, McGregor S, Yoshimatsu T, Zheng Y, Niu Q, Abe H, Mueller J, Conzen S, Ji Y, Giger ML, Olopade OI. Radiogenomics of breast cancer using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and gene expression profiling. Cancer Imaging. 2019 Jul 15; 19(1):48. PMID: 31307537; PMCID: PMC6628478.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Whitney HM, Drukker K, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Giger ML. Effect of biopsy on the MRI radiomics classification of benign lesions and luminal A cancers. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jul; 6(3):031408. PMID: 35834307; PMCID: PMC6378704.
      Citations: 2     
    24. Drukker K, Giger ML, Joe BN, Kerlikowske K, Greenwood H, Drukteinis JS, Niell B, Fan B, Malkov S, Avila J, Kazemi L, Shepherd J. Combined Benefit of Quantitative Three-Compartment Breast Image Analysis and Mammography Radiomics in the Classification of Breast Masses in a Clinical Data Set. Radiology. 2019 03; 290(3):621-628. PMID: 30526359; PMCID: PMC6394732.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Sahiner B, Pezeshk A, Hadjiiski LM, Wang X, Drukker K, Cha KH, Summers RM, Giger ML. Deep learning in medical imaging and radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2019 Jan; 46(1):e1-e36. PMID: 30367497; PMCID: PMC9560030.
      Citations: 170     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Armato SG, Huisman H, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Kirby JS, Petrick N, Redmond G, Giger ML, Cha K, Mamonov A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Farahani K. PROSTATEx Challenges for computerized classification of prostate lesions from multiparametric magnetic resonance images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044501. PMID: 30840739; PMCID: PMC6228312.
      Citations: 40     
    27. Whitney HM, Taylor NS, Drukker K, Edwards AV, Papaioannou J, Schacht D, Giger ML. Additive Benefit of Radiomics Over Size Alone in the Distinction Between Benign Lesions and Luminal A Cancers on a Large Clinical Breast MRI Dataset. Acad Radiol. 2019 02; 26(2):202-209. PMID: 29754995; PMCID: PMC9392156.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Drukker K, Li H, Antropova N, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Giger ML. Most-enhancing tumor volume by MRI radiomics predicts recurrence-free survival "early on" in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2018 Apr 13; 18(1):12. PMID: 29653585; PMCID: PMC5899353.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Haddad CW, Drukker K, Gullett R, Carroll TJ, Christoforidis GA, Giger ML. Fuzzy c-means segmentation of major vessels in angiographic images of stroke. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):014501. PMID: 29322070; PMCID: PMC5753042.
      Citations: 1     
    30. Sutton EJ, Huang EP, Drukker K, Burnside ES, Li H, Net JM, Rao A, Whitman GJ, Zuley M, Ganott M, Bonaccio E, Giger ML, Morris EA, TCGA group. Breast MRI radiomics: comparison of computer- and human-extracted imaging phenotypes. Eur Radiol Exp. 2017; 1(1):22. PMID: 29708200; PMCID: PMC5909355.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    
    31. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Petrick NA. Letter to the Editor: Use of Publicly Available Image Resources. Acad Radiol. 2017 07; 24(7):916-917. PMID: 28506513.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    32. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP, Tourassi GD. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044506. PMID: 28018939; PMCID: PMC5166709.
      Citations: 30     
    33. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Huang E, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Zuley M, Net JM, Sutton E, Whitman GJ, Morris E, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. Quantitative MRI radiomics in the prediction of molecular classifications of breast cancer subtypes in the TCGA/TCIA data set. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2016; 2. PMID: 27853751; PMCID: PMC5108580.
      Citations: 164     
    34. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Whitman GJ, Sutton EJ, Net JM, Ganott M, Huang E, Morris EA, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. MR Imaging Radiomics Signatures for Predicting the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence as Given by Research Versions of MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, and PAM50 Gene Assays. Radiology. 2016 Nov; 281(2):382-391. PMID: 27144536; PMCID: PMC5069147.
      Citations: 225     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Giger ML, Inciardi MF, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Drukker K, Jiang Y, Brem R, Brown JB. Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breasts: Reader Study of Mammography-Negative and Mammography-Positive Cancers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun; 206(6):1341-50. PMID: 27043979.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Zhu Y, Li H, Guo W, Drukker K, Lan L, Giger ML, Ji Y. Deciphering Genomic Underpinnings of Quantitative MRI-based Radiomic Phenotypes of Invasive Breast Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 07; 5:17787. PMID: 26639025; PMCID: PMC4671006.
      Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    37. Burnside ES, Drukker K, Li H, Bonaccio E, Zuley M, Ganott M, Net JM, Sutton EJ, Brandt KR, Whitman GJ, Conzen SD, Lan L, Ji Y, Zhu Y, Jaffe CC, Huang EP, Freymann JB, Kirby JS, Morris EA, Giger ML. Using computer-extracted image phenotypes from tumors on breast magnetic resonance imaging to predict breast cancer pathologic stage. Cancer. 2016 Mar 01; 122(5):748-57. PMID: 26619259; PMCID: PMC4764425.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Guo W, Li H, Zhu Y, Lan L, Yang S, Drukker K, Morris E, Burnside E, Whitman G, Giger ML, Ji Y, Tcga Breast Phenotype Research Group. Prediction of clinical phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas from the integration of radiomics and genomics data. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 10; 2(4):041007. PMID: 26835491; PMCID: PMC4718467.
      Citations: 80     
    39. Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Drukker K, Giger ML, Li F, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification: reflections and lessons learned. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020103. PMID: 26158094; PMCID: PMC4489507.
      Citations: 15     
    40. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Drukker K, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A. Impact of lesion segmentation metrics on computer-aided diagnosis/detection in breast computed tomography. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):031012. PMID: 26158052; PMCID: PMC4478751.
      Citations: 5     
    41. Schacht DV, Drukker K, Pak I, Abe H, Giger ML. Using quantitative image analysis to classify axillary lymph nodes on breast MRI: a new application for the Z 0011 Era. Eur J Radiol. 2015 Mar; 84(3):392-397. PMID: 25547328; PMCID: PMC4628184.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Drukker K, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A, Sennett CA. Segmentation of breast masses on dedicated breast computed tomography and three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Apr; 1(1):014501. PMID: 32855995; PMCID: PMC7439764.
      Citations: 4     
    43. Drukker K, Duewer F, Giger ML, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Joe B, Kerlikowske K, Drukteinis JS, Li H, Shepherd JA. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031915. PMID: 24593733; PMCID: PMC3978370.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    44. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts. Med Phys. 2014 Jan; 41(1):012901. PMID: 24387528; PMCID: PMC3874062.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Drukker K, Horsch KJ, Pesce LL, Giger ML. Interreader scoring variability in an observer study using dual-modality imaging for breast cancer detection in women with dense breasts. Acad Radiol. 2013 Jul; 20(7):847-53. PMID: 23601952; PMCID: PMC3784312.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Drukker K, Giger M, Meinel LA, Starkey A, Janardanan J, Abe H. Quantitative ultrasound image analysis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2013 Nov; 8(6):895-903. PMID: 23526445.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Sadinski M, Giger M, Drukker K, Yamaguchi K, Lan L, Li H. TU-E-217BCD-07: Pilot Study on Consistency in Size Metrics for a Multimodality PEM/MR Breast Imaging Approach. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part24):3915. PMID: 28518670.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    48. Pesce LL, Horsch K, Drukker K, Metz CE. Semiparametric estimation of the relationship between ROC operating points and the test-result scale: application to the proper binormal model. Acad Radiol. 2011 Dec; 18(12):1537-48. PMID: 22055797; PMCID: PMC3368704.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    
    49. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled data. Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-72. PMID: 20879576; PMCID: PMC2921421.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled dataa). Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-4172. PMID: 28524319.
    51. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: Application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6Part1):2659-2669. PMID: 28512957.
    52. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6):2659-69. PMID: 20632577; PMCID: PMC2885941.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Li H, Yuan Y, Bhooshan N. Exploring nonlinear feature space dimension reduction and data representation in breast Cadx with Laplacian eigenmaps and t-SNE. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):339-51. PMID: 20175497; PMCID: PMC2807447.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Chang RF, Sennett CA, Moon WK, Pesce LL. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis system: robustness across urban populations in South Korea and the United States. Radiology. 2009 Dec; 253(3):661-71. PMID: 19864511; PMCID: PMC2786194.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. Chen W, Metz CE, Giger ML, Drukker K. A novel hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier for two-class classification: theory, algorithm, and applications. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Feb; 29(2):428-41. PMID: 19822471.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Zur RM, Jiang Y, Pesce LL, Drukker K. Noise injection for training artificial neural networks: a comparison with weight decay and early stopping. Med Phys. 2009 Oct; 36(10):4810-8. PMID: 19928111; PMCID: PMC2771718.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    
    57. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Automated method for improving system performance of computer-aided diagnosis in breast ultrasound. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009 Jan; 28(1):122-8. PMID: 19116194.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Sennett CA, Pesce LL. Performance of breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis: dependence on image selection. Acad Radiol. 2008 Oct; 15(10):1234-45. PMID: 18790394; PMCID: PMC2567418.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Drukker K, Gruszauskas NP, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis workstation: performance with a large clinical diagnostic population. Radiology. 2008 Aug; 248(2):392-7. PMID: 18574139; PMCID: PMC2797650.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Roy AS, Armato SG, Wilson A, Drukker K. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: false-positive reduction with the radial-gradient index. Med Phys. 2006 Apr; 33(4):1133-40. PMID: 16696491.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Drukker K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Robustness of computerized lesion detection and classification scheme across different breast US platforms. Radiology. 2005 Dec; 237(3):834-40. PMID: 16304105.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Drukker K, Horsch K, Giger ML. Multimodality computerized diagnosis of breast lesions using mammography and sonography. Acad Radiol. 2005 Aug; 12(8):970-9. PMID: 16087091.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    63. Drukker K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized detection and classification of cancer on breast ultrasound. Acad Radiol. 2004 May; 11(5):526-35. PMID: 15147617.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    64. Drukker K, Giger ML, Mendelson EB. Computerized analysis of shadowing on breast ultrasound for improved lesion detection. Med Phys. 2003 Jul; 30(7):1833-42. PMID: 12906202.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Drukker K, Giger ML, Horsch K, Kupinski MA, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound. Med Phys. 2002 Jul; 29(7):1438-46. PMID: 12148724.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    66. Gilhuijs KG, Drukker K, Touw A, van de Ven PJ, van Herk M. Interactive three dimensional inspection of patient setup in radiation therapy using digital portal images and computed tomography data. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996 Mar 01; 34(4):873-85. PMID: 8598365.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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