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Margaret L. Gardel

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentPhysics
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My lab is dedicated to understanding how cell adhesion and migration is regulated by the physical behaviors and structure of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions and cell-cell adhesions and how the physical behaviors of complex cytoskeletal machines emerge from their molecular constituents. We employ approaches from condensed matter physics, cell biology and biochemistry to study the physical properties of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions within live cells and in reconstituted systems of purified proteins.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MAPhD05/2004Physics
    Brown University, Providence, RIBS05/1998Physics & Math
    Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA07/2007Cell Biology

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Staddon MF, Cavanaugh KE, Munro EM, Gardel ML, Banerjee S. Mechanosensitive Junction Remodeling Promotes Robust Epithelial Morphogenesis. Biophys J. 2019 Nov 05; 117(9):1739-1750. PMID: 31635790.
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    2. Huang JX, Lee G, Cavanaugh KE, Chang JW, Gardel ML, Moellering RE. High throughput discovery of functional protein modifications by Hotspot Thermal Profiling. Nat Methods. 2019 09; 16(9):894-901. PMID: 31384043.
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    3. Arzash S, McCall PM, Feng J, Gardel ML, MacKintosh FC. Stress relaxation in F-actin solutions by severing. Soft Matter. 2019 Aug 21; 15(31):6300-6307. PMID: 31342050.
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    4. McCall PM, MacKintosh FC, Kovar DR, Gardel ML. Cofilin drives rapid turnover and fluidization of entangled F-actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 25; 116(26):12629-12637. PMID: 31189606.
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    5. Weirich KL, Dasbiswas K, Witten TA, Vaikuntanathan S, Gardel ML. Self-organizing motors divide active liquid droplets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 04; 116(23):11125-11130. PMID: 31113883.
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    6. Kumar N, Zhang R, de Pablo JJ, Gardel ML. Tunable structure and dynamics of active liquid crystals. Sci Adv. 2018 10; 4(10):eaat7779. PMID: 30333990.
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    7. Schaumann EN, Staddon MF, Gardel ML, Banerjee S. Force localization modes in dynamic epithelial colonies. Mol Biol Cell. 2018 11 15; 29(23):2835-2847. PMID: 30207837.
      View in: PubMed
    8. McCall PM, Srivastava S, Perry SL, Kovar DR, Gardel ML, Tirrell MV. Partitioning and Enhanced Self-Assembly of Actin in Polypeptide Coacervates. Biophys J. 2018 04 10; 114(7):1636-1645. PMID: 29642033.
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    9. Majumdar S, Foucard LC, Levine AJ, Gardel ML. Mechanical hysteresis in actin networks. Soft Matter. 2018 Mar 14; 14(11):2052-2058. PMID: 29479596.
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    10. Nekrasova O, Harmon RM, Broussard JA, Koetsier JL, Godsel LM, Fitz GN, Gardel ML, Green KJ. Desmosomal cadherin association with Tctex-1 and cortactin-Arp2/3 drives perijunctional actin polymerization to promote keratinocyte delamination. Nat Commun. 2018 03 13; 9(1):1053. PMID: 29535305.
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    11. Oakes PW, Bidone TC, Beckham Y, Skeeters AV, Ramirez-San Juan GR, Winter SP, Voth GA, Gardel ML. Lamellipodium is a myosin-independent mechanosensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 03 13; 115(11):2646-2651. PMID: 29487208.
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    12. Fessenden TB, Beckham Y, Perez-Neut M, Ramirez-San Juan G, Chourasia AH, Macleod KF, Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Dia1-dependent adhesions are required by epithelial tissues to initiate invasion. J Cell Biol. 2018 04 02; 217(4):1485-1502. PMID: 29437785.
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    13. Zhang R, Kumar N, Ross JL, Gardel ML, de Pablo JJ. Interplay of structure, elasticity, and dynamics in actin-based nematic materials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 09; 115(2):E124-E133. PMID: 29284753.
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    14. McFadden WM, McCall PM, Gardel ML, Munro EM. Filament turnover tunes both force generation and dissipation to control long-range flows in a model actomyosin cortex. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017 12; 13(12):e1005811. PMID: 29253848.
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    15. Stam S, Freedman SL, Banerjee S, Weirich KL, Dinner AR, Gardel ML. Filament rigidity and connectivity tune the deformation modes of active biopolymer networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 11 21; 114(47):E10037-E10045. PMID: 29114058.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Oakes PW, Wagner E, Brand CA, Probst D, Linke M, Schwarz US, Glotzer M, Gardel ML. Optogenetic control of RhoA reveals zyxin-mediated elasticity of stress fibres. Nat Commun. 2017 06 12; 8:15817. PMID: 28604737.
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    17. Suarez C, McCall PM, Gardel ML, Kovar DR. When Is "Enough" Enough? Cell Syst. 2017 05 24; 4(5):480-482. PMID: 28544879.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hissa B, Oakes PW, Pontes B, Ramírez-San Juan G, Gardel ML. Cholesterol depletion impairs contractile machinery in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep. 2017 03 03; 7:43764. PMID: 28256617.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Ramirez-San Juan GR, Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Contact guidance requires spatial control of leading-edge protrusion. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Apr 15; 28(8):1043-1053. PMID: 28228548.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Weirich KL, Banerjee S, Dasbiswas K, Witten TA, Vaikuntanathan S, Gardel ML. Liquid behavior of cross-linked actin bundles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 02 28; 114(9):2131-2136. PMID: 28202730.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Piel M, Gardel M. Editorial overview: Cell architecture. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2016 Feb; 38:v-vi. PMID: 26971062.
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    22. Murrell M, Oakes PW, Lenz M, Gardel ML. Forcing cells into shape: the mechanics of actomyosin contractility. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Aug; 16(8):486-98. PMID: 26130009.
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    23. Craig EM, Stricker J, Gardel M, Mogilner A. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge. Phys Biol. 2015 May 13; 12(3):035002. PMID: 25969948.
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    24. De La Cruz EM, Gardel ML. Actin Mechanics and Fragmentation. J Biol Chem. 2015 Jul 10; 290(28):17137-44. PMID: 25957404.
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    25. Stam S, Alberts J, Gardel ML, Munro E. Isoforms Confer Characteristic Force Generation and Mechanosensation by Myosin II Filaments. Biophys J. 2015 Apr 21; 108(8):1997-2006. PMID: 25902439.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Soiné JR, Brand CA, Stricker J, Oakes PW, Gardel ML, Schwarz US. Model-based traction force microscopy reveals differential tension in cellular actin bundles. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Mar; 11(3):e1004076. PMID: 25748431.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Meng F, Mambetsariev I, Tian Y, Beckham Y, Meliton A, Leff A, Gardel ML, Allen MJ, Birukov KG, Birukova AA. Attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung vascular stiffening by lipoxin reduces lung inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015 Feb; 52(2):152-61. PMID: 24992633.
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    28. Gardel ML. Moving beyond molecular mechanisms. J Cell Biol. 2015 Jan 19; 208(2):143-5. PMID: 25601400.
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    29. Cetera M, Ramirez-San Juan GR, Oakes PW, Lewellyn L, Fairchild MJ, Tanentzapf G, Gardel ML, Horne-Badovinac S. Epithelial rotation promotes the global alignment of contractile actin bundles during Drosophila egg chamber elongation. Nat Commun. 2014 Nov 21; 5:5511. PMID: 25413675.
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    30. Stam S, Gardel ML. Cutting through the noise: the mechanics of intracellular transport. Dev Cell. 2014 Aug 25; 30(4):365-6. PMID: 25158851.
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    31. Oakes PW, Banerjee S, Marchetti MC, Gardel ML. Geometry regulates traction stresses in adherent cells. Biophys J. 2014 Aug 19; 107(4):825-33. PMID: 25140417.
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    32. Maruthamuthu V, Gardel ML. Protrusive activity guides changes in cell-cell tension during epithelial cell scattering. Biophys J. 2014 Aug 05; 107(3):555-563. PMID: 25099795.
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    33. Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Stressing the limits of focal adhesion mechanosensitivity. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2014 Oct; 30:68-73. PMID: 24998185.
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    34. Beckham Y, Vasquez RJ, Stricker J, Sayegh K, Campillo C, Gardel ML. Arp2/3 inhibition induces amoeboid-like protrusions in MCF10A epithelial cells by reduced cytoskeletal-membrane coupling and focal adhesion assembly. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100943. PMID: 24967897.
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    35. Murrell M, Gardel ML. Actomyosin sliding is attenuated in contractile biomimetic cortices. Mol Biol Cell. 2014 Jun 15; 25(12):1845-53. PMID: 24760970.
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    36. Kim T, Gardel ML, Munro E. Determinants of fluidlike behavior and effective viscosity in cross-linked actin networks. Biophys J. 2014 Feb 04; 106(3):526-34. PMID: 24507593.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Murrell M, Thoresen T, Gardel M. Reconstitution of contractile actomyosin arrays. Methods Enzymol. 2014; 540:265-82. PMID: 24630112.
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    38. Burov S, Tabei SM, Huynh T, Murrell MP, Philipson LH, Rice SA, Gardel ML, Scherer NF, Dinner AR. Distribution of directional change as a signature of complex dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 03; 110(49):19689-94. PMID: 24248363.
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    39. Stricker J, Beckham Y, Davidson MW, Gardel ML. Myosin II-mediated focal adhesion maturation is tension insensitive. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70652. PMID: 23923013.
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    40. Falzone TT, Oakes PW, Sees J, Kovar DR, Gardel ML. Actin assembly factors regulate the gelation kinetics and architecture of F-actin networks. Biophys J. 2013 Apr 16; 104(8):1709-19. PMID: 23601318.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Gardel M. Margaret Gardel: at the interface of physics and biology. Interview by Caitlin Sedwick. J Cell Biol. 2013 Apr 15; 201(2):170-1. PMID: 23589489.
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    42. Thoresen T, Lenz M, Gardel ML. Thick filament length and isoform composition determine self-organized contractile units in actomyosin bundles. Biophys J. 2013 Feb 05; 104(3):655-65. PMID: 23442916.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Gardel ML. Materials science: Synthetic polymers with biological rigidity. Nature. 2013 Jan 31; 493(7434):618-9. PMID: 23354043.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Birukova AA, Tian X, Cokic I, Beckham Y, Gardel ML, Birukov KG. Endothelial barrier disruption and recovery is controlled by substrate stiffness. Microvasc Res. 2013 May; 87:50-7. PMID: 23296034.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Caswell TA, Zhang Z, Gardel ML, Nagel SR. Observation and characterization of the vestige of the jamming transition in a thermal three-dimensional system. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013 Jan; 87(1):012303. PMID: 23410327.
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    46. Murrell MP, Gardel ML. F-actin buckling coordinates contractility and severing in a biomimetic actomyosin cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 18; 109(51):20820-5. PMID: 23213249.
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    47. Gardel ML. Living matter--nexus of physics and biology in the 21st century. Mol Biol Cell. 2012 Nov; 23(21):4165-6. PMID: 23112229.
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    48. Fischer RS, Myers KA, Gardel ML, Waterman CM. Stiffness-controlled three-dimensional extracellular matrices for high-resolution imaging of cell behavior. Nat Protoc. 2012 Nov; 7(11):2056-66. PMID: 23099487.
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    49. Stachowiak MR, McCall PM, Thoresen T, Balcioglu HE, Kasiewicz L, Gardel ML, O'Shaughnessy B. Self-organization of myosin II in reconstituted actomyosin bundles. Biophys J. 2012 Sep 19; 103(6):1265-74. PMID: 22995499.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Schwarz US, Gardel ML. United we stand: integrating the actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions in cellular mechanotransduction. J Cell Sci. 2012 Jul 01; 125(Pt 13):3051-60. PMID: 22797913.
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    51. Lenz M, Thoresen T, Gardel ML, Dinner AR. Contractile units in disordered actomyosin bundles arise from F-actin buckling. Phys Rev Lett. 2012 Jun 08; 108(23):238107. PMID: 23003998.
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    52. Falzone TT, Lenz M, Kovar DR, Gardel ML. Assembly kinetics determine the architecture of a-actinin crosslinked F-actin networks. Nat Commun. 2012 May 29; 3:861. PMID: 22643888.
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    53. Lenz M, Gardel ML, Dinner AR. Requirements for contractility in disordered cytoskeletal bundles. New J Phys. 2012 Mar 01; 14. PMID: 23155355.
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    54. Oakes PW, Beckham Y, Stricker J, Gardel ML. Tension is required but not sufficient for focal adhesion maturation without a stress fiber template. J Cell Biol. 2012 Feb 06; 196(3):363-74. PMID: 22291038.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Stricker J, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Spatiotemporal constraints on the force-dependent growth of focal adhesions. Biophys J. 2011 Jun 22; 100(12):2883-93. PMID: 21689521.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Thoresen T, Lenz M, Gardel ML. Reconstitution of contractile actomyosin bundles. Biophys J. 2011 Jun 08; 100(11):2698-705. PMID: 21641315.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Maruthamuthu V, Sabass B, Schwarz US, Gardel ML. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 22; 108(12):4708-13. PMID: 21383129.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Aratyn-Schaus Y, Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Dynamic and structural signatures of lamellar actomyosin force generation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Apr 15; 22(8):1330-9. PMID: 21307339.
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    59. Norstrom M, Gardel ML. Shear thickening of F-actin networks crosslinked with non-muscle myosin IIB. Soft Matter. 2011 Jan 01; 2011(7):3228-3233. PMID: 21552431.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Aratyn-Schaus Y, Oakes PW, Stricker J, Winter SP, Gardel ML. Preparation of complaint matrices for quantifying cellular contraction. J Vis Exp. 2010 Dec 14; (46). PMID: 21178972.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Smith MA, Blankman E, Gardel ML, Luettjohann L, Waterman CM, Beckerle MC. A zyxin-mediated mechanism for actin stress fiber maintenance and repair. Dev Cell. 2010 Sep 14; 19(3):365-76. PMID: 20833360.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Maruthamuthu V, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML. Conserved F-actin dynamics and force transmission at cell adhesions. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2010 Oct; 22(5):583-8. PMID: 20728328.
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    63. Borghi N, Lowndes M, Maruthamuthu V, Gardel ML, Nelson WJ. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 27; 107(30):13324-9. PMID: 20566866.
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    64. Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML. Transient frictional slip between integrin and the ECM in focal adhesions under myosin II tension. Curr Biol. 2010 Jul 13; 20(13):1145-53. PMID: 20541412.
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    65. Stricker J, Sabass B, Schwarz US, Gardel ML. Optimization of traction force microscopy for micron-sized focal adhesions. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 May 19; 22(19):194104. PMID: 20523913.
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    66. Gardel M, Schwarz U. Cell-substrate interactions. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 May 19; 22(19):190301. PMID: 21386358.
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    67. Gardel ML, Schneider IC, Aratyn-Schaus Y, Waterman CM. Mechanical integration of actin and adhesion dynamics in cell migration. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2010; 26:315-33. PMID: 19575647.
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    68. Gardel E, Sitaridou E, Facto K, Keene E, Hattam K, Easwar N, Menon N. Dynamical fluctuations in dense granular flows. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2009 Dec 28; 367(1909):5109-21. PMID: 19933130.
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    69. Rizvi SA, Neidt EM, Cui J, Feiger Z, Skau CT, Gardel ML, Kozmin SA, Kovar DR. Identification and characterization of a small molecule inhibitor of formin-mediated actin assembly. Chem Biol. 2009 Nov 25; 16(11):1158-68. PMID: 19942139.
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    70. Stricker J, Falzone T, Gardel ML. Mechanics of the F-actin cytoskeleton. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 05; 43(1):9-14. PMID: 19913792.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Fischer RS, Gardel M, Ma X, Adelstein RS, Waterman CM. Local cortical tension by myosin II guides 3D endothelial cell branching. Curr Biol. 2009 Feb 10; 19(3):260-5. PMID: 19185493.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Gardel ML, Sabass B, Ji L, Danuser G, Schwarz US, Waterman CM. Traction stress in focal adhesions correlates biphasically with actin retrograde flow speed. J Cell Biol. 2008 Dec 15; 183(6):999-1005. PMID: 19075110.
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    73. Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML. Biophysics. Clutch dynamics. Science. 2008 Dec 12; 322(5908):1646-7. PMID: 19074337.
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    74. Lim Y, Lim ST, Tomar A, Gardel M, Bernard-Trifilo JA, Chen XL, Uryu SA, Canete-Soler R, Zhai J, Lin H, Schlaepfer WW, Nalbant P, Bokoch G, Ilic D, Waterman-Storer C, Schlaepfer DD. PyK2 and FAK connections to p190Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor regulate RhoA activity, focal adhesion formation, and cell motility. J Cell Biol. 2008 Jan 14; 180(1):187-203. PMID: 18195107.
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    75. Gardel ML, Kasza KE, Brangwynne CP, Liu J, Weitz DA. Chapter 19: Mechanical response of cytoskeletal networks. Methods Cell Biol. 2008; 89:487-519. PMID: 19118688.
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    76. Sabass B, Gardel ML, Waterman CM, Schwarz US. High resolution traction force microscopy based on experimental and computational advances. Biophys J. 2008 Jan 01; 94(1):207-20. PMID: 17827246.
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    77. Féral CC, Zijlstra A, Tkachenko E, Prager G, Gardel ML, Slepak M, Ginsberg MH. CD98hc (SLC3A2) participates in fibronectin matrix assembly by mediating integrin signaling. J Cell Biol. 2007 Aug 13; 178(4):701-11. PMID: 17682053.
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    78. Ji L, Loerke D, Gardel M, Danuser G. Probing intracellular force distributions by high-resolution live cell imaging and inverse dynamics. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 83:199-235. PMID: 17613310.
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    79. Liu J, Gardel ML, Kroy K, Frey E, Hoffman BD, Crocker JC, Bausch AR, Weitz DA. Microrheology probes length scale dependent rheology. Phys Rev Lett. 2006 Mar 24; 96(11):118104. PMID: 16605878.
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    80. Gardel ML, Nakamura F, Hartwig J, Crocker JC, Stossel TP, Weitz DA. Stress-dependent elasticity of composite actin networks as a model for cell behavior. Phys Rev Lett. 2006 Mar 03; 96(8):088102. PMID: 16606229.
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    81. Gardel ML, Nakamura F, Hartwig JH, Crocker JC, Stossel TP, Weitz DA. Prestressed F-actin networks cross-linked by hinged filamins replicate mechanical properties of cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 07; 103(6):1762-7. PMID: 16446458.
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    82. Gardel ML, Shin JH, MacKintosh FC, Mahadevan L, Matsudaira PA, Weitz DA. Scaling of F-actin network rheology to probe single filament elasticity and dynamics. Phys Rev Lett. 2004 Oct 29; 93(18):188102. PMID: 15525211.
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    83. Shin JH, Gardel ML, Mahadevan L, Matsudaira P, Weitz DA. Relating microstructure to rheology of a bundled and cross-linked F-actin network in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 29; 101(26):9636-41. PMID: 15210969.
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    84. Valentine MT, Perlman ZE, Gardel ML, Shin JH, Matsudaira P, Mitchison TJ, Weitz DA. Colloid surface chemistry critically affects multiple particle tracking measurements of biomaterials. Biophys J. 2004 Jun; 86(6):4004-14. PMID: 15189896.
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    85. Gardel ML, Shin JH, MacKintosh FC, Mahadevan L, Matsudaira P, Weitz DA. Elastic behavior of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Science. 2004 May 28; 304(5675):1301-5. PMID: 15166374.
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    86. Wong IY, Gardel ML, Reichman DR, Weeks ER, Valentine MT, Bausch AR, Weitz DA. Anomalous diffusion probes microstructure dynamics of entangled F-actin networks. Phys Rev Lett. 2004 Apr 30; 92(17):178101. PMID: 15169197.
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    87. Gardel ML, Valentine MT, Crocker JC, Bausch AR, Weitz DA. Microrheology of entangled F-actin solutions. Phys Rev Lett. 2003 Oct 10; 91(15):158302. PMID: 14611506.
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    88. Gordon VD, Valentine MT, Gardel ML, Andor-Ardó D, Dennison S, Bogdanov AA, Weitz DA, Deisboeck TS. Measuring the mechanical stress induced by an expanding multicellular tumor system: a case study. Exp Cell Res. 2003 Sep 10; 289(1):58-66. PMID: 12941604.
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