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Maryellen L. Giger

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentRadiology
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Maryellen L. Giger, Ph.D. is the A.N. Pritzker Professor of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, and the College at the University of Chicago. She is also the Vice-Chair of Radiology (Basic Science Research) and the immediate past Director of the CAMPEP-accredited Graduate Programs in Medical Physics/ Chair of the Committee on Medical Physics at the University.

    For over 30 years, she has conducted research on computer-aided diagnosis, including computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning, in the areas of breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, lupus, and bone diseases.

    Over her career, she has served on various NIH, DOD, and other funding agencies’ study sections, and is now a member of the NIBIB Advisory Council of NIH.

    She is a former president of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and a former president of the SPIE (the International Society of Optics and Photonics) and was the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of the SPIE Journal of Medical Imaging.

    She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and was awarded the William D. Coolidge Gold Medal from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the highest award given by the AAPM. She is a Fellow of AAPM, AIMBE, SPIE, SBMR, and IEEE, a recipient of the EMBS Academic Career Achievement Award, and is a current Hagler Institute Fellow at Texas A&M University. In 2013, Giger was named by the International Congress on Medical Physics (ICMP) as one of the 50 medical physicists with the most impact on the field in the last 50 years. In 2018, she received the iBIO iCON Innovator award.

    She has more than 200 peer-reviewed publications (over 300 publications), has more than 30 patents and has mentored over 100 graduate students, residents, medical students, and undergraduate students.

    Her research in computational image-based analyses of breast cancer for risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy has yielded various translated components, and she is now using these image-based phenotypes, i.e., these “virtual biopsies” in imaging genomics association studies for discovery.

    She is a cofounder, equity holder, and scientific advisor of Quantitative Insights, Inc., which started through the 2009-2010 New Venture Challenge at the University of Chicago. QI produces QuantX, the first FDA-cleared, machine-learning-driven system to aid in cancer diagnosis (CADx).


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Illinois Benedictine College, Lisle, ILBS05/1978physics, math, health science
    University of Exeter, Exeter, EnglandMSc9/1979physics
    University of Chicago, Chicago, ILPhD3/1985medical physics
    Collapse awards and honors
    1975 - 1977President's Scholarship Award, Illinois Benedictine College
    1977Rev. Shonka, O.S.B. Scholarship Award in Physics, Illinois Benedictine College
    1978B.S. summa cum laude, Illinois Benedictine College
    1978Procopian Award, Illinois Benedictine College
    1978 - 1979Rotary International Fellowship
    1985First Place Award, Young Investigators' Symposium, AAPM
    1995Sylvia Sorkin Greenfield Award, AAPM
    2000Fellow, AIMBE
    1995Stauffer Award, Academic Radiology
    2001Fellow, AAPM
    2005Senior Member, IEEE
    2005Third Vice President (Honorary), RSNA
    2006Distinguished Alumni Award, Benedictine University
    2009Excellence Award, University of Chicago Paul Hodges Alumni Society
    2010Elected National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Engineering
    2013Named by the International Congress on Medical Physics (ICMP) as one of the 50 medical physicists wi
    2014Fellow, SPIE
    2014Distinguished Science Alumni Award, Benedictine University
    2015Visionary Award, Benedictine University
    2015William D. Coolidge Gold Medal, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)
    2015Distinguished Investigator, Academy of Radiology Research
    2016Fellow, IEEE
    2016Academic Career Achievement Award, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS)
    2017 - 2020Hagler Institute Fellow, Texas A & M University
    2018Fellow, Society of Breast MRI (SBMR)
    2018Crain's Chicago Notable Women in Education, Crain's Chicago
    2018iCON Innovator Award, IBIO Institute

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Drukker K, Edwards A, Doyle C, Papaioannou J, Kulkarni K, Giger ML. Breast MRI radiomics for the pretreatment prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer patients. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jul; 6(3):034502. PMID: 31592438.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ji Y, Li H, Edwards AV, Papaioannou J, Ma W, Liu P, Giger ML. Independent validation of machine learning in diagnosing breast Cancer on magnetic resonance imaging within a single institution. Cancer Imaging. 2019 Sep 18; 19(1):64. PMID: 31533838.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Sheth D, Giger ML. Artificial intelligence in the interpretation of breast cancer on MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2019 Jul 25. PMID: 31343790.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Yeh AC, Li H, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Khramtsova G, Drukker K, Edwards A, McGregor S, Yoshimatsu T, Zheng Y, Niu Q, Abe H, Mueller J, Conzen S, Ji Y, Giger ML, Olopade OI. Radiogenomics of breast cancer using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and gene expression profiling. Cancer Imaging. 2019 Jul 15; 19(1):48. PMID: 31307537.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Robinson K, Li H, Lan L, Schacht D, Giger M. Radiomics robustness assessment and classification evaluation: A two-stage method demonstrated on multivendor FFDM. Med Phys. 2019 May; 46(5):2145-2156. PMID: 30802972.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Miller TA, Robinson KR, Li H, Seiwert TY, Haraf DJ, Lan L, Giger ML, Ginat DT. Prognostic value of pre-treatment CT texture analysis in combination with change in size of the primary tumor in response to induction chemotherapy for HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2019 Mar; 9(3):399-408. PMID: 31032187.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Liarski VM, Sibley A, van Panhuys N, Ai J, Chang A, Kennedy D, Merolle M, Germain RN, Giger ML, Clark MR. Quantifying in situ adaptive immune cell cognate interactions in humans. Nat Immunol. 2019 04; 20(4):503-513. PMID: 30778242.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Li H, Mendel KR, Lan L, Sheth D, Giger ML. Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer: Additive Value of Radiomics of Breast Parenchyma. Radiology. 2019 04; 291(1):15-20. PMID: 30747591.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bi WL, Hosny A, Schabath MB, Giger ML, Birkbak NJ, Mehrtash A, Allison T, Arnaout O, Abbosh C, Dunn IF, Mak RH, Tamimi RM, Tempany CM, Swanton C, Hoffmann U, Schwartz LH, Gillies RJ, Huang RY, Aerts HJWL. Artificial intelligence in cancer imaging: Clinical challenges and applications. CA Cancer J Clin. 2019 Mar; 69(2):127-157. PMID: 30720861.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Drukker K, Giger ML, Joe BN, Kerlikowske K, Greenwood H, Drukteinis JS, Niell B, Fan B, Malkov S, Avila J, Kazemi L, Shepherd J. Combined Benefit of Quantitative Three-Compartment Breast Image Analysis and Mammography Radiomics in the Classification of Breast Masses in a Clinical Data Set. Radiology. 2019 03; 290(3):621-628. PMID: 30526359.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Foy JJ, Robinson KR, Li H, Giger ML, Al-Hallaq H, Armato SG. Variation in algorithm implementation across radiomics software. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044505. PMID: 30840747.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Sahiner B, Pezeshk A, Hadjiiski LM, Wang X, Drukker K, Cha KH, Summers RM, Giger ML. Deep learning in medical imaging and radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2019 Jan; 46(1):e1-e36. PMID: 30367497.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Armato SG, Huisman H, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Kirby JS, Petrick N, Redmond G, Giger ML, Cha K, Mamonov A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Farahani K. PROSTATEx Challenges for computerized classification of prostate lesions from multiparametric magnetic resonance images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044501. PMID: 30840739.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Mackie TR, Jackson EF, Giger M. Opportunities and challenges to utilization of quantitative imaging: Report of the AAPM practical big data workshop. Med Phys. 2018 Oct; 45(10):e820-e828. PMID: 30248184.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Net JM, Whitman GJ, Morris E, Brandt KR, Burnside ES, Giger ML, Ganott M, Sutton EJ, Zuley ML, Rao A. Relationships Between Human-Extracted MRI Tumor Phenotypes of Breast Cancer and Clinical Prognostic Indicators Including Receptor Status and Molecular Subtype. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2019 Sep - Oct; 48(5):467-472. PMID: 30270031.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Antropova N, Huynh B, Li H, Giger ML. Breast lesion classification based on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images sequences with long short-term memory networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2019 Jan; 6(1):011002. PMID: 30840721.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Mendel K, Li H, Sheth D, Giger M. Transfer Learning From Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Diagnosis: A Comparison of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Full-Field Digital Mammography. Acad Radiol. 2019 Jun; 26(6):735-743. PMID: 30076083.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Whitney HM, Taylor NS, Drukker K, Edwards AV, Papaioannou J, Schacht D, Giger ML. Additive Benefit of Radiomics Over Size Alone in the Distinction Between Benign Lesions and Luminal A Cancers on a Large Clinical Breast MRI Dataset. Acad Radiol. 2019 02; 26(2):202-209. PMID: 29754995.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Drukker K, Li H, Antropova N, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Giger ML. Most-enhancing tumor volume by MRI radiomics predicts recurrence-free survival "early on" in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2018 Apr 13; 18(1):12. PMID: 29653585.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Antropova N, Abe H, Giger ML. Use of clinical MRI maximum intensity projections for improved breast lesion classification with deep convolutional neural networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):014503. PMID: 29430478.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Giger ML. Machine Learning in Medical Imaging. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 03; 15(3 Pt B):512-520. PMID: 29398494.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Orton CG, Giger ML. A brief history of the AAPM: Celebrating 60 years of contributions to medical physics practice and science. Med Phys. 2018 Feb; 45(2):497-501. PMID: 29424444.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Kontos D, Summers RM, Giger M. Special Section Guest Editorial: Radiomics and Deep Learning. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Oct; 4(4):041301. PMID: 29322066.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Haddad CW, Drukker K, Gullett R, Carroll TJ, Christoforidis GA, Giger ML. Fuzzy c-means segmentation of major vessels in angiographic images of stroke. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):014501. PMID: 29322070.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Sutton EJ, Huang EP, Drukker K, Burnside ES, Li H, Net JM, Rao A, Whitman GJ, Zuley M, Ganott M, Bonaccio E, Giger ML, Morris EA. Breast MRI radiomics: comparison of computer- and human-extracted imaging phenotypes. Eur Radiol Exp. 2017; 1(1):22. PMID: 29708200.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Sevick-Muraca EM, Frank RA, Giger ML, Mulshine JL. Moonshot Acceleration Factor: Medical Imaging. Cancer Res. 2017 11 01; 77(21):5717-5720. PMID: 28993413.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Mendel KR, Li H, Lan L, Cahill CM, Rael V, Abe H, Giger ML. Quantitative texture analysis: robustness of radiomics across two digital mammography manufacturers' systems. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jan; 5(1):011002. PMID: 28948196.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Li H, Giger ML, Huynh BQ, Antropova NO. Deep learning in breast cancer risk assessment: evaluation of convolutional neural networks on a clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Oct; 4(4):041304. PMID: 28924576.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Antropova N, Huynh BQ, Giger ML. A deep feature fusion methodology for breast cancer diagnosis demonstrated on three imaging modality datasets. Med Phys. 2017 Oct; 44(10):5162-5171. PMID: 28681390.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Giger M. Updates and Changes with JMI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2017 Jul; 4(3):030101. PMID: 28744476.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Petrick NA. Letter to the Editor: Use of Publicly Available Image Resources. Acad Radiol. 2017 07; 24(7):916-917. PMID: 28506513.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Medved M, Li H, Abe H, Sheth D, Newstead GM, Olopade OI, Giger ML, Karczmar GS. Fast bilateral breast coverage with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI at 3T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 11; 46(5):1341-1348. PMID: 28263425.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Li H, Weiss WA, Medved M, Abe H, Newstead GM, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044507. PMID: 28042590.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044506. PMID: 28018939.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Ko K, Wang J, Perper S, Jiang Y, Yanez D, Kaverina N, Ai J, Liarski VM, Chang A, Peng Y, Lan L, Westmoreland S, Olson L, Giger ML, Chun Wang L, Clark MR. Bcl-2 as a Therapeutic Target in Human Tubulointerstitial Inflammation. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 11; 68(11):2740-2751. PMID: 27159593.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Huynh BQ, Li H, Giger ML. Digital mammographic tumor classification using transfer learning from deep convolutional neural networks. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Jul; 3(3):034501. PMID: 27610399.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Li F, Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Clinical significance of noncalcified lung nodules in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Sep; 159(2):265-71. PMID: 27503305.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Huang E, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Zuley M, Net JM, Sutton E, Whitman GJ, Morris E, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. Quantitative MRI radiomics in the prediction of molecular classifications of breast cancer subtypes in the TCGA/TCIA data set. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2016; 2. PMID: 27853751.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Li H, Zhu Y, Burnside ES, Drukker K, Hoadley KA, Fan C, Conzen SD, Whitman GJ, Sutton EJ, Net JM, Ganott M, Huang E, Morris EA, Perou CM, Ji Y, Giger ML. MR Imaging Radiomics Signatures for Predicting the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence as Given by Research Versions of MammaPrint, Oncotype DX, and PAM50 Gene Assays. Radiology. 2016 Nov; 281(2):382-391. PMID: 27144536.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Giger ML, Inciardi MF, Edwards A, Papaioannou J, Drukker K, Jiang Y, Brem R, Brown JB. Automated Breast Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening of Women With Dense Breasts: Reader Study of Mammography-Negative and Mammography-Positive Cancers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun; 206(6):1341-50. PMID: 27043979.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Response. Radiology. 2016 Feb; 278(2):633. PMID: 27186610.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Napel S, Giger M. Special Section Guest Editorial:Radiomics and Imaging Genomics: Quantitative Imaging for Precision Medicine. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Oct; 2(4):041001. PMID: 26839908.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Zhu Y, Li H, Guo W, Drukker K, Lan L, Giger ML, Ji Y. Deciphering Genomic Underpinnings of Quantitative MRI-based Radiomic Phenotypes of Invasive Breast Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 07; 5:17787. PMID: 26639025.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Burnside ES, Drukker K, Li H, Bonaccio E, Zuley M, Ganott M, Net JM, Sutton EJ, Brandt KR, Whitman GJ, Conzen SD, Lan L, Ji Y, Zhu Y, Jaffe CC, Huang EP, Freymann JB, Kirby JS, Morris EA, Giger ML. Using computer-extracted image phenotypes from tumors on breast magnetic resonance imaging to predict breast cancer pathologic stage. Cancer. 2016 Mar 01; 122(5):748-57. PMID: 26619259.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Giger ML, Tornai MP. The Spectrum of Medical Imaging in the 2015 International Year of Light. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Jul; 2(3):030101. PMID: 26839902.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Guo W, Li H, Zhu Y, Lan L, Yang S, Drukker K, Morris E, Burnside E, Whitman G, Giger ML, Ji Y. Prediction of clinical phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas from the integration of radiomics and genomics data. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 10; 2(4):041007. PMID: 26835491.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Weiss WA, Medved M, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Preliminary assessment of dispersion versus absorption analysis of high spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images in the diagnosis of breast cancer. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):024502. PMID: 26158106.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Long-term results of microcoil embolization for colonic haemorrhage: how common is rebleeding? Br J Radiol. 2015 Jul; 88(1051):20150203. PMID: 25927678.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Giger ML. Introduction to the LUNGx Challenge. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020102. PMID: 26158093.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Drukker K, Giger ML, Li F, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification: reflections and lessons learned. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020103. PMID: 26158094.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Sheth S, Giger M, Funaki B. Radiologically Guided Placement of Mushroom-retained Gastrostomy Catheters: Long-term Outcomes of Use in 300 Patients at a Single Center. Radiology. 2015 Aug; 276(2):588-96. PMID: 25775194.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Drukker K, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A. Impact of lesion segmentation metrics on computer-aided diagnosis/detection in breast computed tomography. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):031012. PMID: 26158052.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Andrews M, Giger ML, Roman BB. Manganese-enhanced MRI detection of impaired calcium regulation in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy. NMR Biomed. 2015 Feb; 28(2):255-63. PMID: 25523065.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Schacht DV, Drukker K, Pak I, Abe H, Giger ML. Using quantitative image analysis to classify axillary lymph nodes on breast MRI: a new application for the Z 0011 Era. Eur J Radiol. 2015 Mar; 84(3):392-397. PMID: 25547328.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Li H, Giger ML, Lan L, Janardanan J, Sennett CA. Comparative analysis of image-based phenotypes of mammographic density and parenchymal patterns in distinguishing between BRCA1/2 cases, unilateral cancer cases, and controls. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):031009. PMID: 26158050.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Giger ML. Pioneers in Medical Imaging Series. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Oct; 1(3):030101. PMID: 26158042.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Gierach GL, Li H, Loud JT, Greene MH, Chow CK, Lan L, Prindiville SA, Eng-Wong J, Soballe PW, Giambartolomei C, Mai PL, Galbo CE, Nichols K, Calzone KA, Olopade OI, Gail MH, Giger ML. Relationships between computer-extracted mammographic texture pattern features and BRCA1/2 mutation status: a cross-sectional study. Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(4):424. PMID: 25159706.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Bos A, Ahmed O, Jilani D, Giger M, Funaki BS, Zangan SM. Dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2015 Jun; 38(3):651-6. PMID: 25118845.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Giger ML. Exciting Progress in the Growth of JMI. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Jul; 1(2):020101. PMID: 26158033.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Obuchowski NA, Reeves AP, Huang EP, Wang XF, Buckler AJ, Kim HJ, Barnhart HX, Jackson EF, Giger ML, Pennello G, Toledano AY, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Apanasovich TV, Kinahan PE, Myers KJ, Goldgof DB, Barboriak DP, Gillies RJ, Schwartz LH, Sullivan DC. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons. Stat Methods Med Res. 2015 Feb; 24(1):68-106. PMID: 24919829.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Ahmed O, Jilani D, Funaki B, Ginsburg M, Sheth S, Giger M, Zangan S. Comparison of barbed versus conventional sutures for wound closure of radiologically implanted chest ports. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014 Sep; 25(9):1433-8. PMID: 24912877.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Liarski VM, Kaverina N, Chang A, Brandt D, Yanez D, Talasnik L, Carlesso G, Herbst R, Utset TO, Labno C, Peng Y, Jiang Y, Giger ML, Clark MR. Cell distance mapping identifies functional T follicular helper cells in inflamed human renal tissue. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Apr 02; 6(230):230ra46. PMID: 24695686.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Kuo HC, Giger ML, Reiser I, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K, Edwards A. Level set segmentation of breast masses in contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT and evaluation of stopping criteria. J Digit Imaging. 2014 Apr; 27(2):237-47. PMID: 24162667.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Giger ML. Welcome to the Journal of Medical Imaging. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2014 Apr; 1(1):010101. PMID: 26158020.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Drukker K, Duewer F, Giger ML, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Joe B, Kerlikowske K, Drukteinis JS, Li H, Shepherd JA. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031915. PMID: 24593733.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Li H, Giger ML, Sun C, Ponsukcharoen U, Huo D, Lan L, Olopade OI, Jamieson AR, Brown JB, Di Rienzo A. Pilot study demonstrating potential association between breast cancer image-based risk phenotypes and genomic biomarkers. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031917. PMID: 24593735.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Antic T, Giger ML, Eggener SE, Oto A. Validation of quantitative analysis of multiparametric prostate MR images for prostate cancer detection and aggressiveness assessment: a cross-imager study. Radiology. 2014 May; 271(2):461-71. PMID: 24533870.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Weiss WA, Medved M, Karczmar GS, Giger ML. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: a pilot study. Med Phys. 2014 Jan; 41(1):012303. PMID: 24387524.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts. Med Phys. 2014 Jan; 41(1):012901. PMID: 24387528.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Medved M, Li H, Wood A, Yuan Y, Lan L, Marquez A, Karczmar G, Newstead G. Potential of computer-aided diagnosis of high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI in the classification of breast lesions. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 Jan; 39(1):59-67. PMID: 24023011.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Giger ML, Karssemeijer N, Schnabel JA. Breast image analysis for risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2013; 15:327-57. PMID: 23683087.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Drukker K, Horsch KJ, Pesce LL, Giger ML. Interreader scoring variability in an observer study using dual-modality imaging for breast cancer detection in women with dense breasts. Acad Radiol. 2013 Jul; 20(7):847-53. PMID: 23601952.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Ozturk N, Armato SG, Giger ML, Serago CF, Ross LF. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: a survey of AAPM members. Med Phys. 2013 Apr; 40(4):047001. PMID: 23556930.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Drukker K, Giger M, Meinel LA, Starkey A, Janardanan J, Abe H. Quantitative ultrasound image analysis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2013 Nov; 8(6):895-903. PMID: 23526445.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Yang C, Brown JB, Antic T, Sethi I, Schmid-Tannwald C, Giger ML, Eggener SE, Oto A. Quantitative analysis of multiparametric prostate MR images: differentiation between prostate cancer and normal tissue and correlation with Gleason score--a computer-aided diagnosis development study. Radiology. 2013 Jun; 267(3):787-96. PMID: 23392430.
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    76. Li H, Giger ML, Lan L, Bancroft Brown J, MacMahon A, Mussman M, Olopade OI, Sennett C. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns on a large clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms: robustness study with two high-risk datasets. J Digit Imaging. 2012 Oct; 25(5):591-8. PMID: 22246204.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Ozturk N, Armato S, Giger ML, Serago C, Ross LF. SU-E-E-03: Ethics and Professionalism Education in Medical Physics: A Needs Assessment Study. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part3):3623-3624. PMID: 28517419.
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    78. Sadinski M, Giger M, Drukker K, Yamaguchi K, Lan L, Li H. TU-E-217BCD-07: Pilot Study on Consistency in Size Metrics for a Multimodality PEM/MR Breast Imaging Approach. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part24):3915. PMID: 28518670.
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    79. Horsch K, Pesce LL, Giger ML, Metz CE, Jiang Y. A scaling transformation for classifier output based on likelihood ratio: applications to a CAD workstation for diagnosis of breast cancer. Med Phys. 2012 May; 39(5):2787-804. PMID: 22559651.
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    80. Armato SG, Gruszauskas NP, Macmahon H, Torno MD, Li F, Engelmann RM, Starkey A, Pudela CL, Marino JS, Santiago F, Chang PJ, Giger ML. Research imaging in an academic medical center. Acad Radiol. 2012 Jun; 19(6):762-71. PMID: 22480961.
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    81. Gallas BD, Chan HP, D'Orsi CJ, Dodd LE, Giger ML, Gur D, Krupinski EA, Metz CE, Myers KJ, Obuchowski NA, Sahiner B, Toledano AY, Zuley ML. Evaluating imaging and computer-aided detection and diagnosis devices at the FDA. Acad Radiol. 2012 Apr; 19(4):463-77. PMID: 22306064.
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    82. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Boone JM, Lindfors KK, Yang K. Automated detection of mass lesions in dedicated breast CT: a preliminary study. Med Phys. 2012 Feb; 39(2):866-73. PMID: 22320796.
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    83. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Jiang Y, Metz CE. Re: effectiveness of computer-aided detection in community mammography practice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Jan 04; 104(1):77; author reply 78-9. PMID: 22186178.
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    84. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Edwards D, Yuan Y, Jansen S, Li H, Lan L, Sattar H, Newstead G. Computerized three-class classification of MRI-based prognostic markers for breast cancer. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Sep 21; 56(18):5995-6008. PMID: 21860079.
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    85. Bhooshan N, Giger M, Lan L, Li H, Marquez A, Shimauchi A, Newstead GM. Combined use of T2-weighted MRI and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the automated analysis of breast lesions. Magn Reson Med. 2011 Aug; 66(2):555-64. PMID: 21523818.
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    86. Jansen SA, Lin VC, Giger ML, Li H, Karczmar GS, Newstead GM. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast. Eur Radiol. 2011 Jul; 21(7):1374-82. PMID: 21327872.
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    87. Buckler AJ, Bresolin L, Dunnick NR, Sullivan DC, Aerts HJ, Bendriem B, Bendtsen C, Boellaard R, Boone JM, Cole PE, Conklin JJ, Dorfman GS, Douglas PS, Eidsaunet W, Elsinger C, Frank RA, Gatsonis C, Giger ML, Gupta SN, Gustafson D, Hoekstra OS, Jackson EF, Karam L, Kelloff GJ, Kinahan PE, McLennan G, Miller CG, Mozley PD, Muller KE, Patt R, Raunig D, Rosen M, Rupani H, Schwartz LH, Siegel BA, Sorensen AG, Wahl RL, Waterton JC, Wolf W, Zahlmann G, Zimmerman B. Quantitative imaging test approval and biomarker qualification: interrelated but distinct activities. Radiology. 2011 Jun; 259(3):875-84. PMID: 21325035.
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    88. Shimauchi A, Giger ML, Bhooshan N, Lan L, Pesce LL, Lee JK, Abe H, Newstead GM. Evaluation of clinical breast MR imaging performed with prototype computer-aided diagnosis breast MR imaging workstation: reader study. Radiology. 2011 Mar; 258(3):696-704. PMID: 21212365.
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    89. King M, Rodgers Z, Giger ML, Bardo DM, Patel AR. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. Med Phys. 2010 Nov; 37(11):5777-86. PMID: 21158289.
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    90. King M, Rodgers Z, Giger ML, Bardo DME, Patel AR. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. Med Phys. 2010 Nov; 37(11):5777-5786. PMID: 28525007.
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    91. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Bhooshan N, Sennett CA. Multimodality computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis with FFDM and DCE-MRI. Acad Radiol. 2010 Sep; 17(9):1158-67. PMID: 20692620.
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    92. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled data. Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-72. PMID: 20879576.
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    93. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Pesce LL. Enhancement of breast CADx with unlabeled dataa). Med Phys. 2010 Aug; 37(8):4155-4172. PMID: 28524319.
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    94. Chen W, Giger ML, Newstead GM, Bick U, Jansen SA, Li H, Lan L. Computerized assessment of breast lesion malignancy using DCE-MRI robustness study on two independent clinical datasets from two manufacturers. Acad Radiol. 2010 Jul; 17(7):822-9. PMID: 20540907.
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    95. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6):2659-69. PMID: 20632577.
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    96. Drukker K, Pesce L, Giger M. Repeatability in computer-aided diagnosis: Application to breast cancer diagnosis on sonography. Med Phys. 2010 Jun; 37(6Part1):2659-2669. PMID: 28512957.
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    97. Bhooshan N, Giger ML, Jansen SA, Li H, Lan L, Newstead GM. Cancerous breast lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images: computerized characterization for image-based prognostic markers. Radiology. 2010 Mar; 254(3):680-90. PMID: 20123903.
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    98. Jamieson AR, Giger ML, Drukker K, Li H, Yuan Y, Bhooshan N. Exploring nonlinear feature space dimension reduction and data representation in breast Cadx with Laplacian eigenmaps and t-SNE. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):339-51. PMID: 20175497.
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    99. Vokes T, Lauderdale D, Ma SL, Chinander M, Childs K, Giger M. Radiographic texture analysis of densitometric calcaneal images: relationship to clinical characteristics and to bone fragility. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jan; 25(1):56-63. PMID: 19594292.
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    100. Giger ML. Update on the potential of computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer. Future Oncol. 2010 Jan; 6(1):1-4. PMID: 20021201.
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    101. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Chang RF, Sennett CA, Moon WK, Pesce LL. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis system: robustness across urban populations in South Korea and the United States. Radiology. 2009 Dec; 253(3):661-71. PMID: 19864511.
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    102. Chen W, Metz CE, Giger ML, Drukker K. A novel hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier for two-class classification: theory, algorithm, and applications. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Feb; 29(2):428-41. PMID: 19822471.
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    103. Drukker K, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Automated method for improving system performance of computer-aided diagnosis in breast ultrasound. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009 Jan; 28(1):122-8. PMID: 19116194.
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    104. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Sennett C. Correlative feature analysis on FFDM. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12):5490-500. PMID: 19175108.
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    105. Giger ML, Chan HP, Boone J. Anniversary paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: the role of Medical Physics and AAPM. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12):5799-820. PMID: 19175137.
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    106. Li H, Giger ML, Yuan Y, Chen W, Horsch K, Lan L, Jamieson AR, Sennett CA, Jansen SA. Evaluation of computer-aided diagnosis on a large clinical full-field digital mammographic dataset. Acad Radiol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1437-45. PMID: 18995194.
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    107. Horsch K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Prevalence scaling: applications to an intelligent workstation for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Acad Radiol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1446-57. PMID: 18995195.
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    108. Gruszauskas NP, Drukker K, Giger ML, Sennett CA, Pesce LL. Performance of breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis: dependence on image selection. Acad Radiol. 2008 Oct; 15(10):1234-45. PMID: 18790394.
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    109. Jansen SA, Fan X, Karczmar GS, Abe H, Schmidt RA, Giger M, Newstead GM. DCEMRI of breast lesions: is kinetic analysis equally effective for both mass and nonmass-like enhancement? Med Phys. 2008 Jul; 35(7):3102-9. PMID: 18697535.
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    110. Jansen SA, Fan X, Karczmar GS, Abe H, Schmidt RA, Giger M, Newstead GM. DCEMRI of breast lesions: Is kinetic analysis equally effective for both mass and nonmass-like enhancement? Med Phys. 2008 Jul; 35(7Part1):3102-3109. PMID: 28513048.
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    111. Drukker K, Gruszauskas NP, Sennett CA, Giger ML. Breast US computer-aided diagnosis workstation: performance with a large clinical diagnostic population. Radiology. 2008 Aug; 248(2):392-7. PMID: 18574139.
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    112. Horsch K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Potential effect of different radiologist reporting methods on studies showing benefit of CAD. Acad Radiol. 2008 Feb; 15(2):139-52. PMID: 18206613.
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    113. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Engh CA, Hopper RH, Martell JM. Radiographic texture analysis in the characterization of trabecular patterns in periprosthetic osteolysis. Acad Radiol. 2008 Feb; 15(2):176-85. PMID: 18206616.
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    114. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Chinander MR. Power spectral analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for breast cancer risk assessment. J Digit Imaging. 2008 Jun; 21(2):145-52. PMID: 18175183.
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    115. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Engh CA, Hopper RH, Martell JM. Temporal radiographic texture analysis in the detection of periprosthetic osteolysis. Med Phys. 2008 Jan; 35(1):377-87. PMID: 18293592.
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    116. Vokes TJ, Pham A, Wilkie J, Kocherginsky M, Ma SL, Chinander M, Karrison T, Bris O, Giger ML. Reproducibility and sources of variability in radiographic texture analysis of densitometric calcaneal images. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):211-20. PMID: 18158263.
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    117. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Pan X. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4860-75. PMID: 18196812.
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    118. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Bardo DM, Greenberg B, Lan L, Pan X. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4876-89. PMID: 18196813.
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    119. King M, Giger ML, Suzuki K, Bardo DME, Greenberg B, Lan L, Pan X. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT. Med Phys. 2007 Dec; 34(12):4876-4889. PMID: 28523813.
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    120. Yuan Y, Giger ML, Li H, Suzuki K, Sennett C. A dual-stage method for lesion segmentation on digital mammograms. Med Phys. 2007 Nov; 34(11):4180-93. PMID: 18072482.
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    121. Chen W, Giger ML, Li H, Bick U, Newstead GM. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Magn Reson Med. 2007 Sep; 58(3):562-71. PMID: 17763361.
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    122. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Lan L. Fractal analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns in breast cancer risk assessment. Acad Radiol. 2007 May; 14(5):513-21. PMID: 17434064.
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    123. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Lan L, Mendelson EB, Hendrick RE. Classification of breast lesions with multimodality computer-aided diagnosis: observer study results on an independent clinical data set. Radiology. 2006 Aug; 240(2):357-68. PMID: 16864666.
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    124. Chen W, Giger ML, Bick U, Newstead GM. Automatic identification and classification of characteristic kinetic curves of breast lesions on DCE-MRI. Med Phys. 2006 Aug; 33(8):2878-87. PMID: 16964864.
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    125. Vokes TJ, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Karrison TG, Favus MJ, Dixon LB. Radiographic texture analysis of densitometer-generated calcaneus images differentiates postmenopausal women with and without fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2006 Oct; 17(10):1472-82. PMID: 16838099.
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    126. King M, Pan X, Yu L, Giger M. Region-of-interest reconstruction of motion-contaminated data using a weighted backprojection filtration algorithm. Med Phys. 2006 May; 33(5):1222-38. PMID: 16752557.
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    127. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Wu T, Rafferty EA, Moore R, Kopans DB. Computerized mass detection for digital breast tomosynthesis directly from the projection images. Med Phys. 2006 Feb; 33(2):482-91. PMID: 16532956.
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    128. Chen W, Giger ML, Bick U. A fuzzy c-means (FCM)-based approach for computerized segmentation of breast lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images. Acad Radiol. 2006 Jan; 13(1):63-72. PMID: 16399033.
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    129. Drukker K, Giger ML, Metz CE. Robustness of computerized lesion detection and classification scheme across different breast US platforms. Radiology. 2005 Dec; 237(3):834-40. PMID: 16304105.
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    130. Partain CL, Chan HP, Gelovani JG, Giger ML, Izatt JA, Jolesz FA, Kandarpa K, Li KC, McNitt-Gray M, Napel S, Summers RM, Gazelle GS. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop II: report and recommendations. Radiology. 2005 Aug; 236(2):389-403. PMID: 16040898.
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    131. Drukker K, Horsch K, Giger ML. Multimodality computerized diagnosis of breast lesions using mammography and sonography. Acad Radiol. 2005 Aug; 12(8):970-9. PMID: 16087091.
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    132. Li H, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Margolis A, Lan L, Chinander MR. Computerized texture analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns of digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 2005 Jul; 12(7):863-73. PMID: 16039540.
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    133. Giger ML. Update on the potential role of CAD in radiologic interpretations: are we making progress?. Acad Radiol. 2005 Jun; 12(6):669-70. PMID: 15935964.
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    134. Reiser I, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Wu T, Rafferty E, Moore RH, Kopans DB. Computerized detection of mass lesions in digital breast tomosynthesis images using two- and three dimensional radial gradient index segmentation. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Oct; 3(5):437-41. PMID: 15453808.
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    135. Giger ML. Computerized analysis of images in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2004 Oct; 25(5):411-8. PMID: 15559124.
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    136. Drukker K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized detection and classification of cancer on breast ultrasound. Acad Radiol. 2004 May; 11(5):526-35. PMID: 15147617.
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    137. Chen W, Giger ML, Lan L, Bick U. Computerized interpretation of breast MRI: investigation of enhancement-variance dynamics. Med Phys. 2004 May; 31(5):1076-82. PMID: 15191295.
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    138. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Vokes TJ, Nishikawa RM, Carlin MD. Investigation of physical image quality indices of a bone densitometry system. Med Phys. 2004 Apr; 31(4):873-81. PMID: 15125005.
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    139. Wilkie JR, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Vokes TJ, Li H, Dixon L, Jaros V. Comparison of radiographic texture analysis from computed radiography and bone densitometry systems. Med Phys. 2004 Apr; 31(4):882-91. PMID: 15125006.
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    140. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography. Acad Radiol. 2004 Mar; 11(3):272-80. PMID: 15035517.
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    141. Li H, Giger ML, Huo Z, Olopade OI, Lan L, Weber BL, Bonta I. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: effect of ROI size and location. Med Phys. 2004 Mar; 31(3):549-55. PMID: 15070253.
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    142. Edwards DC, Lan L, Metz CE, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Estimating three-class ideal observer decision variables for computerized detection and classification of mammographic mass lesions. Med Phys. 2004 Jan; 31(1):81-90. PMID: 14761024.
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    143. Carson PL, Giger M, Welch MJ, Halpern H, Kurdziel K, Vannier M, Evelhoch JL, Gazelle GS, Seltzer SE, Judy P, Hendee WR, Bourland JD. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop: report and recommendations. Radiology. 2003 Nov; 229(2):328-39. PMID: 12925715.
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    144. Carson PL, Giger M. Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop: report and recommendations overview of the workshop. Acad Radiol. 2003 Aug; 10(8):882-6. PMID: 12945923.
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    145. Drukker K, Giger ML, Mendelson EB. Computerized analysis of shadowing on breast ultrasound for improved lesion detection. Med Phys. 2003 Jul; 30(7):1833-42. PMID: 12906202.
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    146. Armato SG, Li F, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Sone S, Doi K. Lung cancer: performance of automated lung nodule detection applied to cancers missed in a CT screening program. Radiology. 2002 Dec; 225(3):685-92. PMID: 12461246.
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    147. Huo Z, Giger ML, Olopade OI, Wolverton DE, Weber BL, Metz CE, Zhong W, Cummings SA. Computerized analysis of digitized mammograms of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Radiology. 2002 Nov; 225(2):519-26. PMID: 12409590.
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    148. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Metz CE. Breast cancer: effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis observer study with independent database of mammograms. Radiology. 2002 Aug; 224(2):560-8. PMID: 12147857.
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    149. Drukker K, Giger ML, Horsch K, Kupinski MA, Vyborny CJ, Mendelson EB. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound. Med Phys. 2002 Jul; 29(7):1438-46. PMID: 12148724.
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    150. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ. Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Med Phys. 2002 Feb; 29(2):157-64. PMID: 11865987.
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    151. Giger ML. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiology. Acad Radiol. 2002 Jan; 9(1):1-3. PMID: 11918352.
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    152. Giger ML, Karssemeijer N, Armato SG. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1205-8. PMID: 11811820.
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    153. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ. Computerized analysis of multiple-mammographic views: potential usefulness of special view mammograms in computer-aided diagnosis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1285-92. PMID: 11811828.
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    154. Kupinski MA, Edwards DC, Giger ML, Metz CE. Ideal observer approximation using Bayesian classification neural networks. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Sep; 20(9):886-99. PMID: 11585206.
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    155. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: preliminary results. Med Phys. 2001 Aug; 28(8):1552-61. PMID: 11548926.
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    156. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ. Automatic segmentation of breast lesions on ultrasound. Med Phys. 2001 Aug; 28(8):1652-9. PMID: 11548934.
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    157. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Wolverton DE, Metz CE. Computerized classification of benign and malignant masses on digitized mammograms: a study of robustness. Acad Radiol. 2000 Dec; 7(12):1077-84. PMID: 11131052.
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    158. Armato SG, Giger ML, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ, Ryan J, MacMahon H. Automated registration of frontal and lateral radionuclide lung scans with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 2000 Jul; 7(7):530-9. PMID: 10902962.
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    159. Vyborny CJ, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 2000 Jul; 38(4):725-40. PMID: 10943274.
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    160. Jiang C, Giger ML, Kwak SM, Chinander MR, Martell JM, Favus MJ. Normalized BMD as a predictor of bone strength. Acad Radiol. 2000 Jan; 7(1):33-9. PMID: 10645456.
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    161. Chinander MR, Giger ML, Martell JM, Favus MJ. Computerized analysis of radiographic bone patterns: effect of imaging conditions on performance. Med Phys. 2000 Jan; 27(1):75-85. PMID: 10659740.
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    162. Huo Z, Giger ML, Wolverton DE, Zhong W, Cumming S, Olopade OI. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for breast cancer risk assessment: feature selection. Med Phys. 2000 Jan; 27(1):4-12. PMID: 10659732.
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    163. Chinander MR, Giger ML, Martell JM, Jiang C, Favus MJ. Computerized radiographic texture measures for characterizing bone strength: a simulated clinical setup using femoral neck specimens. Med Phys. 1999 Nov; 26(11):2295-300. PMID: 10587210.
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    164. Giger ML, Al-Hallaq H, Huo Z, Moran C, Wolverton DE, Chan CW, Zhong W. Computerized analysis of lesions in US images of the breast. Acad Radiol. 1999 Nov; 6(11):665-74. PMID: 10894069.
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    165. Huo Z, Giger ML, Metz CE. Effect of dominant features on neural network performance in the classification of mammographic lesions. Phys Med Biol. 1999 Oct; 44(10):2579-95. PMID: 10533930.
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    166. Kupinski MA, Giger ML. Feature selection with limited datasets. Med Phys. 1999 Oct; 26(10):2176-82. PMID: 10535635.
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    167. Armato SG, Giger ML, Moran CJ, Blackburn JT, Doi K, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules on CT scans. Radiographics. 1999 Sep-Oct; 19(5):1303-11. PMID: 10489181.
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    168. Jiang C, Giger ML, Chinander MR, Martell JM, Kwak S, Favus MJ. Characterization of bone quality using computer-extracted radiographic features. Med Phys. 1999 Jun; 26(6):872-9. PMID: 10436887.
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    169. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized analysis of abnormal asymmetry in digital chest radiographs: evaluation of potential utility. J Digit Imaging. 1999 Feb; 12(1):34-42. PMID: 10036666.
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    170. Jiang Y, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA, Metz CE, Giger ML, Doi K. Improving breast cancer diagnosis with computer-aided diagnosis. Acad Radiol. 1999 Jan; 6(1):22-33. PMID: 9891149.
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    171. Gilhuijs KG, Giger ML, Bick U. Computerized analysis of breast lesions in three dimensions using dynamic magnetic-resonance imaging. Med Phys. 1998 Sep; 25(9):1647-54. PMID: 9775369.
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    172. Armato SG, Giger ML, Ashizawa K, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digital lateral chest radiographs. Med Phys. 1998 Aug; 25(8):1507-20. PMID: 9725142.
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    173. Kupinski MA, Giger ML. Automated seeded lesion segmentation on digital mammograms. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1998 Aug; 17(4):510-7. PMID: 9845307.
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    174. Giger M, Brignoli R. [Prevalence of upper abdominal complaints and their effect on the quality of life and utilization of medical resources. Swiss Primary Care Group]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1998 May 30; 128(22):874-9. PMID: 9653825.
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    175. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized delineation and analysis of costophrenic angles in digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 May; 5(5):329-35. PMID: 9597100.
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    176. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digitized posteroanterior chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):245-55. PMID: 9561257.
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    177. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Wolverton DE, Schmidt RA, Doi K. Automated computerized classification of malignant and benign masses on digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1998 Mar; 5(3):155-68. PMID: 9522881.
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    178. Xu XW, Doi K, Kobayashi T, MacMahon H, Giger ML. Development of an improved CAD scheme for automated detection of lung nodules in digital chest images. Med Phys. 1997 Sep; 24(9):1395-403. PMID: 9304567.
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    179. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ. Automated registration of ventilation-perfusion images with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1997 Mar; 4(3):183-92. PMID: 9084775.
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    180. Bick U, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Nishikawa RM, Doi K. Density correction of peripheral breast tissue on digital mammograms. Radiographics. 1996 Nov; 16(6):1403-11. PMID: 8946544.
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    181. Giger ML, Wolverton DE. Computer-aided methods help cancer diagnoses. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1996 Nov; Suppl Digital X:D17-20. PMID: 10181866.
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    182. Giger ML, Pelizzari CA. Advances in tumor imaging. Sci Am. 1996 Sep; 275(3):110-2. PMID: 8701277.
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    183. Yoshida H, Doi K, Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Schmidt RA. An improved computer-assisted diagnostic scheme using wavelet transform for detecting clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1996 Aug; 3(8):621-7. PMID: 8796725.
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    184. Giger M, MacMahon H. Image processing and computer-aided diagnosis. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996 May; 34(3):565-96. PMID: 8657872.
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    185. Zhang W, Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA. An improved shift-invariant artificial neural network for computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. Med Phys. 1996 Apr; 23(4):595-601. PMID: 8860907.
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    186. Jiang Y, Nishikawa RM, Wolverton DE, Metz CE, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Vyborny CJ, Doi K. Malignant and benign clustered microcalcifications: automated feature analysis and classification. Radiology. 1996 Mar; 198(3):671-8. PMID: 8628853.
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    187. MacMahon H, Giger M. Portable chest radiography techniques and teleradiology. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996 Jan; 34(1):1-20. PMID: 8539346.
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    188. Huo Z, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Bick U, Lu P, Wolverton DE, Schmidt RA. Analysis of spiculation in the computerized classification of mammographic masses. Med Phys. 1995 Oct; 22(10):1569-79. PMID: 8551981.
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    189. Wu YC, Doi K, Giger ML. Detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs using artificial neural networks: a pilot study. J Digit Imaging. 1995 May; 8(2):88-94. PMID: 7612706.
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    190. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on digital mammograms. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1995 Mar; 33(2):174-8. PMID: 7643656.
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    191. Nishikawa RM, Doi K, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Vyborny CJ, Monnier-Cholley L, Papaioannou J, Lu P. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications: evaluation of performance on mammograms from multiple centers. Radiographics. 1995 Mar; 15(2):443-52. PMID: 7761647.
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    192. Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, MacMahon H, Schmidt RA. Potential usefulness of digital imaging in clinical diagnostic radiology: computer-aided diagnosis. J Digit Imaging. 1995 Feb; 8(1 Suppl 1):2-7. PMID: 7734533.
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    193. Bick U, Giger ML, Schmidt RA, Nishikawa RM, Wolverton DE, Doi K. Automated segmentation of digitized mammograms. Acad Radiol. 1995 Jan; 2(1):1-9. PMID: 9419517.
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    194. Wu YC, Doi K, Giger ML, Metz CE, Zhang W. Reduction of false positives in computerized detection of lung nodules in chest radiographs using artificial neural networks, discriminant analysis, and a rule-based scheme. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Nov; 7(4):196-207. PMID: 7858017.
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    195. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of abnormal asymmetry in digital chest radiographs. Med Phys. 1994 Nov; 21(11):1761-8. PMID: 7891638.
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    196. Hoffmann KR, Doi K, MacMahon H, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Xu XW, Yao L, Kano A, Carlin M. Development of a digital duplication system for portable chest radiographs. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Aug; 7(3):146-53. PMID: 7948174.
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    197. Zhang W, Doi K, Giger ML, Wu Y, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms using a shift-invariant artificial neural network. Med Phys. 1994 Apr; 21(4):517-24. PMID: 8058017.
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    198. Giger ML, Bae KT, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography images. Invest Radiol. 1994 Apr; 29(4):459-65. PMID: 8034453.
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    199. Caligiuri P, Giger ML, Favus M. Multifractal radiographic analysis of osteoporosis. Med Phys. 1994 Apr; 21(4):503-8. PMID: 8058015.
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    200. Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized characterization of mammographic masses: analysis of spiculation. Cancer Lett. 1994 Mar 15; 77(2-3):201-11. PMID: 8168067.
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    201. Vyborny CJ, Giger ML. Computer vision and artificial intelligence in mammography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 Mar; 162(3):699-708. PMID: 8109525.
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    202. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: automated alignment of breast images and its effect on bilateral-subtraction technique. Med Phys. 1994 Mar; 21(3):445-52. PMID: 8208220.
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    203. Kano A, Doi K, MacMahon H, Hassell DD, Giger ML. Digital image subtraction of temporally sequential chest images for detection of interval change. Med Phys. 1994 Mar; 21(3):453-61. PMID: 8208221.
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    204. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: investigation of feature-analysis techniques. J Digit Imaging. 1994 Feb; 7(1):18-26. PMID: 8172975.
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    205. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE, Yin FF, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Effect of case selection on the performance of computer-aided detection schemes. Med Phys. 1994 Feb; 21(2):265-9. PMID: 8177159.
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    206. Abe K, Doi K, MacMahon H, Giger ML, Jia H, Chen X, Kano A, Yanagisawa T. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography. Preliminary experience. Invest Radiol. 1993 Nov; 28(11):987-93. PMID: 8276583.
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    207. Nishikawa RM, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications: an improved method for grouping detected signals. Med Phys. 1993 Nov-Dec; 20(6):1661-6. PMID: 8309438.
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    208. Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, MacMahon H, Schmidt RA, Chua KG. Digital radiography. A useful clinical tool for computer-aided diagnosis by quantitative analysis of radiographic images. Acta Radiol. 1993 Sep; 34(5):426-39. PMID: 8369177.
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    209. Giger M. [Are classical medicine and alternative medicine compatible?]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1993 Jun 22; 82(25-26):731-4. PMID: 8327813.
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    210. Giger ML, Vyborny CJ. Computers aid diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Diagn Imaging (San Franc). 1993 Jun; 15(6):98-102, 113. PMID: 10148792.
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    211. Yin FF, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Doi K, Schmidt RA. Comparison of bilateral-subtraction and single-image processing techniques in the computerized detection of mammographic masses. Invest Radiol. 1993 Jun; 28(6):473-81. PMID: 8320064.
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    212. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Nishikawa RM, Hoffmann KR, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA, Jia H, Abe K, Chen X, et al. An "intelligent" workstation for computer-aided diagnosis. Radiographics. 1993 May; 13(3):647-56. PMID: 8316671.
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    213. Wu Y, Doi K, Metz CE, Asada N, Giger ML. Simulation studies of data classification by artificial neural networks: potential applications in medical imaging and decision making. J Digit Imaging. 1993 May; 6(2):117-25. PMID: 8334172.
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    214. MacMahon H, Xu XW, Hoffmann KR, Giger ML, Yoshimura H, Doi K, Carlin M, Kano A, Yao L, Abe K, et al. Clinical experience with an advanced laser digitizer for cost-effective digital radiography. Radiographics. 1993 May; 13(3):635-45; discussion 645-6. PMID: 8316670.
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    215. Wu Y, Giger ML, Doi K, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA, Metz CE. Artificial neural networks in mammography: application to decision making in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Radiology. 1993 Apr; 187(1):81-7. PMID: 8451441.
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    216. Caligiuri P, Giger ML, Favus MJ, Jia H, Doi K, Dixon LB. Computerized radiographic analysis of osteoporosis: preliminary evaluation. Radiology. 1993 Feb; 186(2):471-4. PMID: 8421753.
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    217. Bae KT, Giger ML, Chen CT, Kahn CE. Automatic segmentation of liver structure in CT images. Med Phys. 1993 Jan-Feb; 20(1):71-8. PMID: 8455515.
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    218. Yoshimura H, Xu XW, Doi K, MacMahon H, Hoffmann KR, Giger ML, Montner SM. Development of a high quality film duplication system using a laser digitizer: comparison with computed radiography. Med Phys. 1993 Jan-Feb; 20(1):51-8. PMID: 8455513.
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    219. Brailean JC, Little D, Giger ML, Chen CT, Sullivan BJ. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images. Med Phys. 1992 Sep-Oct; 19(5):1175-82. PMID: 1435595.
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    220. Matsumoto T, Yoshimura H, Doi K, Giger ML, Kano A, MacMahon H, Abe K, Montner SM. Image feature analysis of false-positive diagnoses produced by automated detection of lung nodules. Invest Radiol. 1992 Aug; 27(8):587-97. PMID: 1428736.
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    221. Matsumoto T, Yoshimura H, Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM, Nakanishi T. Potential usefulness of computerized nodule detection in screening programs for lung cancer. Invest Radiol. 1992 Jun; 27(6):471-5. PMID: 1607261.
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    222. Wu Y, Doi K, Giger ML, Nishikawa RM. Computerized detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms: applications of artificial neural networks. Med Phys. 1992 May-Jun; 19(3):555-60. PMID: 1508089.
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    223. Doi K, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Hoffmann KR, Nishikawa RM, Schmidt RA, Chua KG, Katsuragawa S, Nakamori N, Sanada S, et al. Computer-aided diagnosis: development of automated schemes for quantitative analysis of radiographic images. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1992 Apr; 13(2):140-52. PMID: 1599732.
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    224. Yoshimura H, Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM. Computerized scheme for the detection of pulmonary nodules. A nonlinear filtering technique. Invest Radiol. 1992 Feb; 27(2):124-9. PMID: 1601603.
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    225. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Yoshimura H, Xu XW, Nishikawa RM. Evaluation of imaging properties of a laser film digitizer. Phys Med Biol. 1992 Jan; 37(1):273-80. PMID: 1741429.
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    226. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE, Vyborny CJ, Schmidt RA. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: analysis of bilateral subtraction images. Med Phys. 1991 Sep-Oct; 18(5):955-63. PMID: 1961160.
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    227. Sanada S, Doi K, Xu XW, Yin FF, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Comparison of imaging properties of a computed radiography system and screen-film systems. Med Phys. 1991 May-Jun; 18(3):414-20. PMID: 1870484.
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    228. MacMahon H, Sanada S, Doi K, Giger M, Xu XW, Yin FF, Montner SM, Carlin M. Direct comparison of conventional and computed radiography with a dual-image recording technique. Radiographics. 1991 Mar; 11(2):259-68. PMID: 2028063.
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    229. MacMahon H, Doi K, Sanada S, Montner SM, Giger ML, Metz CE, Nakamori N, Yin FF, Xu XW, Yonekawa H, et al. Data compression: effect on diagnostic accuracy in digital chest radiography. Radiology. 1991 Jan; 178(1):175-9. PMID: 1984299.
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    230. Asada N, Doi K, MacMahon H, Montner SM, Giger ML, Abe C, Wu Y. Potential usefulness of an artificial neural network for differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases: pilot study. Radiology. 1990 Dec; 177(3):857-60. PMID: 2244001.
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    231. Yin FF, Giger ML, Doi K. Measurement of the presampling modulation transfer function of film digitizers using a curve fitting technique. Med Phys. 1990 Nov-Dec; 17(6):962-6. PMID: 2280739.
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    232. Giger ML, Ahn N, Doi K, MacMahon H, Metz CE. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules in digital chest images: use of morphological filters in reducing false-positive detections. Med Phys. 1990 Sep-Oct; 17(5):861-5. PMID: 2233573.
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    233. Schmidt RA, Doi K, Sekiya M, Xu XW, Giger ML, Lu CT, Mojtahedi S, MacMahon H. Evaluation of radiographs developed by a new ultrarapid film processing system. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 May; 154(5):1107-10. PMID: 2108553.
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    234. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H, Metz CE, Yin FF. Pulmonary nodules: computer-aided detection in digital chest images. Radiographics. 1990 Jan; 10(1):41-51. PMID: 2296696.
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    235. MacMahon H, Doi K, Chan HP, Giger ML, Katsuragawa S, Nakamori N. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiology. J Thorac Imaging. 1990 Jan; 5(1):67-76. PMID: 2299705.
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    236. Cook LT, Giger ML, Wetzel LH, Murphey MD, Batnitzky S. Digitized film radiography. Invest Radiol. 1989 Nov; 24(11):910-6. PMID: 2807809.
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    237. Fraser RG, Sanders C, Barnes GT, MacMahon H, Giger ML, Doi K, Templeton AW, Cox GG, Dwyer SJ, Merritt CR, et al. Digital imaging of the chest. Radiology. 1989 May; 171(2):297-307. PMID: 2649913.
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    238. Ohara K, Doi K, Metz CE, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 13. Effect of simple structured noise on the detectability of simulated stenotic lesions. Med Phys. 1989 Jan-Feb; 16(1):14-21. PMID: 2646515.
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    239. MacMahon H, Metz CE, Doi K, Kim T, Giger ML, Chan HP. Digital chest radiography: effect on diagnostic accuracy of hard copy, conventional video, and reversed gray scale video display formats. Radiology. 1988 Sep; 168(3):669-73. PMID: 3406396.
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    240. Fujita H, Giger ML, Doi K. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 12. Effect of matrix configuration on spatial resolution. Med Phys. 1988 May-Jun; 15(3):384-90. PMID: 3405142.
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    241. Giger ML, Doi K, MacMahon H. Image feature analysis and computer-aided diagnosis in digital radiography. 3. Automated detection of nodules in peripheral lung fields. Med Phys. 1988 Mar-Apr; 15(2):158-66. PMID: 3386584.
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    242. Giger ML, Doi K. Effect of pixel size on detectability of low-contrast signals in digital radiography. J Opt Soc Am A. 1987 May; 4(5):966-75. PMID: 3598748.
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    243. Fujita H, Doi K, MacMahon H, Kume Y, Giger ML, Hoffmann KR, Katafuchi T, Ohara K, Chan HP. Basic imaging properties of a large image intensifier-TV digital chest radiographic system. Invest Radiol. 1987 Apr; 22(4):328-35. PMID: 3583653.
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    244. Kume Y, Doi K, Ohara K, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography 10. Structure mottle of II-TV digital imaging systems. Med Phys. 1986 Nov-Dec; 13(6):843-9. PMID: 3796481.
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    245. Doi K, Fujita H, Ohara K, Ono K, Matsui H, Giger ML, Chan HP. Digital radiographic imaging system with multiple-slit scanning x-ray beam: preliminary report. Radiology. 1986 Nov; 161(2):513-8. PMID: 3763924.
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    246. Ohara K, Chan HP, Doi K, Giger ML, Fujita H. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 8. Detection of simulated low-contrast objects in digital subtraction angiographic images. Med Phys. 1986 May-Jun; 13(3):304-11. PMID: 3724689.
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    247. Giger ML, Ohara K, Doi K. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 9. Effect of displayed grey levels on signal detection. Med Phys. 1986 May-Jun; 13(3):312-8. PMID: 3724690.
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    248. Giger ML, Doi K, Fujita H. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 7. Noise Wiener spectra of II-TV digital imaging systems. Med Phys. 1986 Mar-Apr; 13(2):131-8. PMID: 3517612.
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    249. Fujita H, Doi K, Giger ML, Chan HP. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 5. Characteristic curves of II-TV digital systems. Med Phys. 1986 Jan-Feb; 13(1):13-8. PMID: 3951404.
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    250. Fujita H, Doi K, Giger ML. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 6. MTFs of II-TV digital imaging systems. Med Phys. 1985 Nov-Dec; 12(6):713-20. PMID: 4079861.
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    251. Fujita H, Doi K, Chan HP, Giger ML, Duda EE. Dynamic and static phantoms for evaluation of digital subtraction angiographic systems. Radiology. 1985 Jun; 155(3):799-803. PMID: 3890012.
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    252. Giger ML, Doi K. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 3. Effect of pixel size on SNR and threshold contrast. Med Phys. 1985 Mar-Apr; 12(2):201-8. PMID: 4000077.
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    253. Giger ML, Doi K, Metz CE. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 2. Noise Wiener spectrum. Med Phys. 1984 Nov-Dec; 11(6):797-805. PMID: 6513887.
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    254. Giger ML, Doi K. Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. I. Modulation transfer function. Med Phys. 1984 May-Jun; 11(3):287-95. PMID: 6738452.
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