"Proinsulin" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus,
MeSH (Medical Subject Headings). Descriptors are arranged in a hierarchical structure,
which enables searching at various levels of specificity.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Proinsulin".
Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than "Proinsulin".
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Below are the most recent publications written about "Proinsulin" by people in Profiles.
Characterization of Signaling Pathways Associated with Pancreatic ?-cell Adaptive Flexibility in Compensation of Obesity-linked Diabetes in db/db Mice. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 06; 19(6):971-993.
Abnormalities in proinsulin processing in islets from individuals with longstanding T1D. Transl Res. 2019 11; 213:90-99.
Response to Comment on Sims et al. Proinsulin Secretion Is a Persistent Feature of Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2019;42:258-264. Diabetes Care. 2019 05; 42(5):e85-e86.
Proinsulin Secretion Is a Persistent Feature of Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2019 02; 42(2):258-264.
Immune reconstitution in ART treated, but not untreated HIV infection, is associated with abnormal beta cell function. PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0197080.
Persistence of Pancreatic Insulin mRNA Expression and Proinsulin Protein in Type 1 Diabetes Pancreata. Cell Metab. 2017 Sep 05; 26(3):568-575.e3.
In vivo measurement and biological characterisation of the diabetes-associated mutant insulin p.R46Q (GlnB22-insulin). Diabetologia. 2017 08; 60(8):1423-1431.
Primary Human and Rat ?-Cells Release the Intracellular Autoantigens GAD65, IA-2, and Proinsulin in Exosomes Together With Cytokine-Induced Enhancers of Immunity. Diabetes. 2017 02; 66(2):460-473.
Biomarkers of ?-Cell Stress and Death in Type 1 Diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2016 10; 16(10):95.
Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin-to-C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016 Sep; 39(9):1519-26.