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Anita S. Chong

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentSurgery-Transplant
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My lab has had a long-standing interest in understanding the basis of immunological tolerance and humoral immunity following allogeneic transplantation. We have been collaborating extensively with Dr. Marisa Alegre in studying how infections prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance or destabilize established tolerance, and understanding the fundamental mechanisms of robust transplantation tolerance. We recently have developed new approaches to track a defined population of endogenous allospecific T (CD4+effectors (Th1 and Tfh), CD4+Tregs and CD8 effector) and B cells (Class I and Class II reactive), and are now asking how each of these subsets of cells behave under conditions of rejection, memory/sensitization and tolerance, with the goal of identifying new biomarkers of tolerance and rejection.
    We also actively investigating the behavior of memory alloreactive B cells in the setting of transplantation, and in identifying how these cells differ from naïve B cells, with the goal of identifying immunosuppressive and tolerance inducing strategies to control this clinically important subset of cells. We are conducting these studies in experimental rodent models, and also testing our findings in humans. These studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. Roger Sciammas at UCDavis, and the clinical transplant faculty at the University of Chicago and Ohio State University.
    In addition, we have stretched our research into the prevention of infections through vaccination, with the long-term goal of using this strategy as an indirect but cost-effective means of stabilizing tolerance. Towards this goal, my lab has been collaborating with Dr. Chris Montgomery, a physician scientist in the Department of Pediatrics, to identify sub-unit vaccine candidates and to investigate the immunobiology of protection from Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. My lab also has a strong program of collaborative research with Dr. Joel Collier, a bioengineer at Duke University, to develop of nanoparticulate adjuvant-free vaccines that can elicit protective immune responses with minimal inflammation. Such a vaccine that elicits minimal inflammation may be ideal for tolerant patients, as we now appreciate that inflammation can destabilize established tolerance.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Arizona, Tucson, AZResearch Associate
    Tufts University , Boston, MAPost-Doctoral Fellow
    Australian National University, AustraliaPhD
    University of Malaya, MalaysiaBS (Hons)

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Miller ML, McIntosh CM, Wang Y, Chen L, Wang P, Lei YM, Daniels MD, Watkins E, Mora Solano C, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Resilience of T cell-intrinsic dysfunction in transplantation tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Nov 19; 116(47):23682-23690. PMID: 31685610.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Chong AS, Rothstein DM, Issa F, Kotsch K, Leuvenink H, Tullius SG. ITS finally here! The first International Transplant Science meeting jointly organized by AST, ESOT, and TTS. Transplantation. 2019 Oct; 103(10):1975-1976. PMID: 31517787.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chong AS. B Cell Recruitment Follows Kidney Injury and Maladaptive Repair. Transplantation. 2019 Aug; 103(8):1527-1529. PMID: 31348434.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Habal MV, Farr M, Restaino S, Chong A. Desensitization in the Era of Precision Medicine: Moving From the Bench to Bedside. Transplantation. 2019 Aug; 103(8):1574-1581. PMID: 31283678.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lei YM, Sepulveda M, Chen L, Wang Y, Pirozzolo I, Theriault B, Chong AS, Belkaid Y, Alegre ML. Skin-restricted commensal colonization accelerates skin graft rejection. JCI Insight. 2019 Jul 16; 5. PMID: 31310590.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Chong AS, Rothstein DM, Safa K, Riella LV. Outstanding questions in transplantation: B cells, alloantibodies, and humoral rejection. Am J Transplant. 2019 Aug; 19(8):2155-2163. PMID: 30803121.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chong AS. Urinary nanosensors of early transplant rejection. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 Apr; 3(4):251-252. PMID: 30952984.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gupta PK, McIntosh CM, Chong AS, Alegre ML. The pursuit of transplantation tolerance: new mechanistic insights. Cell Mol Immunol. 2019 Apr; 16(4):324-333. PMID: 30760917.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Zwang NA, Ganesh BB, Cardenas KT, Chong AS, Finn PW, Perkins DL. An optimized protocol to quantify signaling in human transitional B cells by phospho flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2018 12; 463:112-121. PMID: 30321549.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Chong AS. New insights into the development of B cell responses: Implications for solid organ transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2019 Jun; 80(6):378-384. PMID: 30240897.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Miller ML, McIntosh CM, Williams JB, Wang Y, Hollinger MK, Isaad NJ, Moon JJ, Gajewski TF, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Distinct Graft-Specific TCR Avidity Profiles during Acute Rejection and Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2018 08 21; 24(8):2112-2126. PMID: 30134172.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Young JS, Yin D, Vannier AGL, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Equal Expansion of Endogenous Transplant-Specific Regulatory T Cell and Recruitment Into the Allograft During Rejection and Tolerance. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1385. PMID: 29973932.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Si Y, Wen Y, Kelly SH, Chong AS, Collier JH. Intranasal delivery of adjuvant-free peptide nanofibers elicits resident CD8+ T cell responses. J Control Release. 2018 07 28; 282:120-130. PMID: 29673645.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Chong AS, Ansari MJ. Heterogeneity of memory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2018 04; 18(4):779-784. PMID: 29359404.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Si Y, Wen Y, Chen J, Pompano RR, Han H, Collier J, Chong AS. MyD88 in antigen-presenting cells is not required for CD4+ T-cell responses during peptide nanofiber vaccination. Medchemcomm. 2018; 9(1):138-148. PMID: 29629068.
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    16. Young JS, McIntosh C, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Evolving Approaches in the Identification of Allograft-Reactive T and B Cells in Mice and Humans. Transplantation. 2017 11; 101(11):2671-2681. PMID: 28604446.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Miller ML, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Fifty Shades of Tolerance: Beyond a Binary Tolerant/Non-Tolerant Paradigm. Curr Transplant Rep. 2017 Dec; 4(4):262-269. PMID: 31098340.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Mora-Solano C, Wen Y, Han H, Chen J, Chong AS, Miller ML, Pompano RR, Collier JH. Active immunotherapy for TNF-mediated inflammation using self-assembled peptide nanofibers. Biomaterials. 2017 Dec; 149:1-11. PMID: 28982051.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Young JS, Khiew SH, Yang J, Vannier A, Yin D, Sciammas R, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Successful Treatment of T Cell-Mediated Acute Rejection with Delayed CTLA4-Ig in Mice. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1169. PMID: 28970838.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Krishnamoorthy V, Kannanganat S, Maienschein-Cline M, Cook SL, Chen J, Bahroos N, Sievert E, Corse E, Chong A, Sciammas R. The IRF4 Gene Regulatory Module Functions as a Read-Write Integrator to Dynamically Coordinate T Helper Cell Fate. Immunity. 2017 09 19; 47(3):481-497.e7. PMID: 28930660.
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    21. Chong AS. Alone Again, Naturally: B Cells Encountering Antigen Without T cells. Transplantation. 2017 09; 101(9):1956-1958. PMID: 28832445.
      View in: PubMed
    22. de Graav GN, Hesselink DA, Dieterich M, Kraaijeveld R, Verschoor W, Roelen DL, Litjens NHR, Chong AS, Weimar W, Baan CC. Belatacept Does Not Inhibit Follicular T Cell-Dependent B-Cell Differentiation in Kidney Transplantation. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:641. PMID: 28620390.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Khiew SH, Yang J, Young JS, Chen J, Wang Q, Yin D, Vu V, Miller ML, Sciammas R, Alegre ML, Chong AS. CTLA4-Ig in combination with FTY720 promotes allograft survival in sensitized recipients. JCI Insight. 2017 May 04; 2(9). PMID: 28469082.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Chong AS, Khiew SH. Transplantation tolerance: don't forget about the B cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017 08; 189(2):171-180. PMID: 28100001.
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    25. Miller ML, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Transplantation tolerance after allograft rejection. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2017 Feb; 22(1):64-70. PMID: 27898463.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Chong AS. From Pipe Dream to Donor-Specific PC Elimination: Novel Ways to Target Alloantibodies. Transplantation. 2016 11; 100(11):2238-2239. PMID: 27776015.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Carroll R, Troelnikov A, Chong AS. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Protocol for Donor Alloantigen-specific Interferon-gamma ELISPOT Assay. Transplant Direct. 2016 Nov; 2(11):e111. PMID: 27826604.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Perera J, Zheng Z, Li S, Gudjonson H, Kalinina O, Benichou JIC, Block KE, Louzoun Y, Yin D, Chong AS, Dinner AR, Weigert M, Huang H. Self-Antigen-Driven Thymic B Cell Class Switching Promotes T Cell Central Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2016 10 04; 17(2):387-398. PMID: 27705788.
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    29. Yang J, Chen J, Young JS, Wang Q, Yin D, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Tracing Donor-MHC Class II Reactive B cells in Mouse Cardiac Transplantation: Delayed CTLA4-Ig Treatment Prevents Memory Alloreactive B-Cell Generation. Transplantation. 2016 08; 100(8):1683-91. PMID: 27362308.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Young JS, Daniels MD, Miller ML, Wang T, Zhong R, Yin D, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Erosion of Transplantation Tolerance After Infection. Am J Transplant. 2017 01; 17(1):81-90. PMID: 27273890.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Alegre ML, Chen L, David MZ, Bartman C, Boyle-Vavra S, Kumar N, Chong AS, Daum RS. Impact of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Colonization and Skin Infections on Systemic Immune Responses in Humans. J Immunol. 2016 08 15; 197(4):1118-26. PMID: 27402695.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Lei YM, Chen L, Wang Y, Stefka AT, Molinero LL, Theriault B, Aquino-Michaels K, Sivan AS, Nagler CR, Gajewski TF, Chong AS, Bartman C, Alegre ML. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection. J Clin Invest. 2016 07 01; 126(7):2736-44. PMID: 27322054.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Miller ML, Chen J, Daniels MD, McKeague MG, Wang Y, Yin D, Vu V, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Adoptive Transfer of Tracer-Alloreactive CD4+ T Cell Receptor Transgenic T Cells Alters the Endogenous Immune Response to an Allograft. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2842-2853. PMID: 27063351.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Miller ML, Daniels MD, Wang T, Wang Y, Xu J, Yin D, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Tracking of TCR-Transgenic T Cells Reveals That Multiple Mechanisms Maintain Cardiac Transplant Tolerance in Mice. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2854-2864. PMID: 27091509.
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    35. Molinero LL, Yin D, Lei YM, Chen L, Wang Y, Chong AS, Alegre ML. High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Enhances Allograft Rejection. Transplantation. 2016 05; 100(5):1015-21. PMID: 27007226.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Young JS, Chen J, Miller ML, Vu V, Tian C, Moon JJ, Alegre ML, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Delayed Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4-Immunoglobulin Treatment Reverses Ongoing Alloantibody Responses and Rescues Allografts From Acute Rejection. Am J Transplant. 2016 08; 16(8):2312-23. PMID: 26928966.
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    37. Zhao F, Chong AS, Montgomery CP. Importance of B Lymphocytes and the IgG-Binding Protein Sbi in Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Pathogens. 2016 Jan 27; 5(1). PMID: 26828524.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Chen J, Wang Q, Yin D, Vu V, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Cutting Edge: CTLA-4Ig Inhibits Memory B Cell Responses and Promotes Allograft Survival in Sensitized Recipients. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 01; 195(9):4069-73. PMID: 26416270.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Zhao F, Cheng BL, Boyle-Vavra S, Alegre ML, Daum RS, Chong AS, Montgomery CP. Proteomic Identification of saeRS-Dependent Targets Critical for Protective Humoral Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Infect Immun. 2015 Sep; 83(9):3712-21. PMID: 26169277.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Miller ML, Daniels MD, Wang T, Chen J, Young J, Xu J, Wang Y, Yin D, Vu V, Husain AN, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Spontaneous restoration of transplantation tolerance after acute rejection. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 07; 6:7566. PMID: 26151823.
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    41. Bartman C, Chong AS, Alegre ML. The influence of the microbiota on the immune response to transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2015 Feb; 20(1):1-7. PMID: 25563985.
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    42. Geissler EK, Tullius SG, Chong AS. Establishment of a global virtual laboratory for transplantation: a symposium report. Transplantation. 2015 Feb; 99(2):381-4. PMID: 25594556.
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    43. Chong AS, Sciammas R. Memory B cells in transplantation. Transplantation. 2015 Jan; 99(1):21-8. PMID: 25525921.
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    44. Yilmaz B, Portugal S, Tran TM, Gozzelino R, Ramos S, Gomes J, Regalado A, Cowan PJ, d'Apice AJ, Chong AS, Doumbo OK, Traore B, Crompton PD, Silveira H, Soares MP. Gut microbiota elicits a protective immune response against malaria transmission. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1277-89. PMID: 25480293.
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    45. Chong AS, Perkins DL. Transplantation: molecular phenotyping of T-cell-mediated rejection. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014 12; 10(12):678-80. PMID: 25347945.
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    46. Chong AS, Kaplan B. New kid on the pretransplant block: IgG recognizing apoptotic cells. Am J Transplant. 2014 Jul; 14(7):1477-8. PMID: 24935790.
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    47. Slegtenhorst BR, Dor FJ, Elkhal A, Rodriguez H, Yang X, Edtinger K, Quante M, Chong AS, Tullius SG. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants. Transplantation. 2014 Jun 15; 97(11):1091-9. PMID: 24646769.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Hudalla GA, Sun T, Gasiorowski JZ, Han H, Tian YF, Chong AS, Collier JH. Gradated assembly of multiple proteins into supramolecular nanomaterials. Nat Mater. 2014 Aug; 13(8):829-36. PMID: 24930032.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Pompano RR, Chen J, Verbus EA, Han H, Fridman A, McNeely T, Collier JH, Chong AS. Titrating T-cell epitopes within self-assembled vaccines optimizes CD4+ helper T cell and antibody outputs. Adv Healthc Mater. 2014 Nov; 3(11):1898-908. PMID: 24923735.
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    50. Shi C, Shenkar R, Kinloch A, Henderson SG, Shaaya M, Chong AS, Clark MR, Awad IA. Immune complex formation and in situ B-cell clonal expansion in human cerebral cavernous malformations. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Jul 15; 272(1-2):67-75. PMID: 24864012.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Cowan M, Chon WJ, Desai A, Andrews S, Bai Y, Veguilla V, Katz JM, Josephson MA, Wilson PC, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Impact of immunosuppression on recall immune responses to influenza vaccination in stable renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2014 Apr 27; 97(8):846-53. PMID: 24366008.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Montgomery CP, Daniels M, Zhao F, Alegre ML, Chong AS, Daum RS. Protective immunity against recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infection requires antibody and interleukin-17A. Infect Immun. 2014 May; 82(5):2125-34. PMID: 24614654.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Chong AS, Alegre ML. Transplantation tolerance and its outcome during infections and inflammation. Immunol Rev. 2014 Mar; 258(1):80-101. PMID: 24517427.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Mengel M, Chong A, Rothstein DM, Zorn E, Maltzman JS. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: a comprehensive look at B cells and antibodies in transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2014 Mar; 14(3):524-30. PMID: 24674597.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Alegre ML, Bartman C, Chong AS. Microbes and allogeneic transplantation. Transplantation. 2014 Jan 15; 97(1):5-11. PMID: 23903013.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Chong AS, Alegre ML, Miller ML, Fairchild RL. Lessons and limits of mouse models. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Dec 01; 3(12):a015495. PMID: 24296351.
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    57. Chen J, Pompano RR, Santiago FW, Maillat L, Sciammas R, Sun T, Han H, Topham DJ, Chong AS, Collier JH. The use of self-adjuvanting nanofiber vaccines to elicit high-affinity B cell responses to peptide antigens without inflammation. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8776-85. PMID: 23953841.
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    58. Chen J, Yin H, Xu J, Wang Q, Edelblum KL, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Reversing endogenous alloreactive B cell GC responses with anti-CD154 or CTLA-4Ig. Am J Transplant. 2013 Sep; 13(9):2280-92. PMID: 23855587.
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    59. Yan W, Xu R, Ma LL, Han W, Geevarghese SK, Williams PE, Sciammas R, Chong AS, Yin DP. B cells assist allograft rejection in the deficiency of protein kinase c-theta. Transpl Int. 2013 Sep; 26(9):919-27. PMID: 23841454.
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    60. Montgomery CP, Daniels MD, Zhao F, Spellberg B, Chong AS, Daum RS. Local inflammation exacerbates the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69508. PMID: 23861974.
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    61. Yin H, Park SY, Wang XJ, Misawa R, Grossman EJ, Tao J, Zhong R, Witkowski P, Bell GI, Chong AS. Enhancing pancreatic Beta-cell regeneration in vivo with pioglitazone and alogliptin. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65777. PMID: 23762423.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Ochiai K, Maienschein-Cline M, Simonetti G, Chen J, Rosenthal R, Brink R, Chong AS, Klein U, Dinner AR, Singh H, Sciammas R. Transcriptional regulation of germinal center B and plasma cell fates by dynamical control of IRF4. Immunity. 2013 May 23; 38(5):918-29. PMID: 23684984.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Hudalla GA, Modica JA, Tian YF, Rudra JS, Chong AS, Sun T, Mrksich M, Collier JH. A self-adjuvanting supramolecular vaccine carrying a folded protein antigen. Adv Healthc Mater. 2013 Aug; 2(8):1114-9. PMID: 23436779.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Chang A, Moore JM, Cowan ML, Josephson MA, Chon WJ, Sciammas R, Du Z, Marino SR, Meehan SM, Millis M, David MZ, Williams JW, Chong AS. Plasma cell densities and glomerular filtration rates predict renal allograft outcomes following acute rejection. Transpl Int. 2012 Oct; 25(10):1050-8. PMID: 22805456.
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    65. Rudra JS, Mishra S, Chong AS, Mitchell RA, Nardin EH, Nussenzweig V, Collier JH. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep; 33(27):6476-84. PMID: 22695068.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Chong AS, Alegre ML. The impact of infection and tissue damage in solid-organ transplantation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 May 25; 12(6):459-71. PMID: 22627862.
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    67. Chong AS, Bell GI. Three Strikes and You're Cured. Sci Transl Med. 2012 May 09; 4(133):133fs12. PMID: 22572878.
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    68. Rudra JS, Sun T, Bird KC, Daniels MD, Gasiorowski JZ, Chong AS, Collier JH. Modulating adaptive immune responses to peptide self-assemblies. ACS Nano. 2012 Feb 28; 6(2):1557-64. PMID: 22273009.
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    69. Alegre ML, Chong AS. "Tip-toeing" to an assay for transplantation tolerance? Am J Transplant. 2012 Mar; 12(3):519-20. PMID: 22151375.
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    70. Chong AS, Sciammas R. Matchmaking the B-cell signature of tolerance to regulatory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec; 11(12):2555-60. PMID: 21967001.
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    71. Cowan ML, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Experimental models of B cell tolerance in transplantation. Semin Immunol. 2012 Apr; 24(2):77-85. PMID: 21925896.
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    72. Ahmed EB, Wang T, Daniels M, Alegre ML, Chong AS. IL-6 induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection prevents the induction of skin allograft acceptance in mice. Am J Transplant. 2011 May; 11(5):936-46. PMID: 21449942.
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    73. Newell KA, Chong AS. Making a B-line for transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2011 Mar; 11(3):420-1. PMID: 21299832.
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    74. Ahmed EB, Daniels M, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Bacterial infections, alloimmunity, and transplantation tolerance. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2011 Jan; 25(1):27-35. PMID: 21126661.
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    75. Burns AM, Chong AS. Alloantibodies prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance by enhancing alloreactive T cell priming. J Immunol. 2011 Jan 01; 186(1):214-21. PMID: 21135169.
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    76. Bhorade SM, Chen H, Molinero L, Liao C, Garrity ER, Vigneswaran WT, Shilling R, Sperling A, Chong A, Alegre ML. Decreased percentage of CD4+FoxP3+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from lung transplant recipients correlates with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Transplantation. 2010 Sep 15; 90(5):540-6. PMID: 20628341.
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    77. Wang T, Ahmed EB, Chen L, Xu J, Tao J, Wang CR, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Infection with the intracellular bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, overrides established tolerance in a mouse cardiac allograft model. Am J Transplant. 2010 Jul; 10(7):1524-33. PMID: 20642679.
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    78. Grossman E, Tao J, Wilson R, Park SY, Bell G, Chong A. Seeing is believing: how the MIP-luc mouse can advance the field of islet transplantation and ß-cell regeneration. Islets. 2010 Jul-Aug; 2(4):261-2. PMID: 21099322.
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    79. Grossman EJ, Lee DD, Tao J, Wilson RA, Park SY, Bell GI, Chong AS. Glycemic control promotes pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 18; 5(1):e8749. PMID: 20090914.
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    80. Alegre ML, Chong A. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in transplantation. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 Jun 01; 1:36-43. PMID: 19482622.
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    81. Chen L, Ahmed E, Wang T, Wang Y, Ochando J, Chong AS, Alegre ML. TLR signals promote IL-6/IL-17-dependent transplant rejection. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):6217-25. PMID: 19414775.
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    82. Alegre ML, Chen L, Wang T, Ahmed E, Wang CR, Chong A. Antagonistic effect of toll-like receptor signaling and bacterial infections on transplantation tolerance. Transplantation. 2009 May 15; 87(9 Suppl):S77-9. PMID: 19424015.
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    83. Burns AM, Ma L, Li Y, Yin D, Shen J, Xu J, Chong AS. Memory alloreactive B cells and alloantibodies prevent anti-CD154-mediated allograft acceptance. J Immunol. 2009 Feb 01; 182(3):1314-24. PMID: 19155477.
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    84. Alegre ML, Goldstein DR, Chong AS. Toll-like receptor signaling in transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008 Aug; 13(4):358-65. PMID: 18685330.
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    85. Alegre ML, Leemans J, Le Moine A, Florquin S, De Wilde V, Chong A, Goldman M. The multiple facets of toll-like receptors in transplantation biology. Transplantation. 2008 Jul 15; 86(1):1-9. PMID: 18622268.
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    86. Dorrance AM, Liu S, Chong A, Pulley B, Nemer D, Guimond M, Yuan W, Chang D, Whitman SP, Marcucci G, Caligiuri MA. The Mll partial tandem duplication: differential, tissue-specific activity in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Blood. 2008 Sep 15; 112(6):2508-11. PMID: 18617636.
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    87. Wang T, Chen L, Ahmed E, Ma L, Yin D, Zhou P, Shen J, Xu H, Wang CR, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Prevention of allograft tolerance by bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):5991-9. PMID: 18424719.
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    88. Li Y, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Chong AS. Long-term control of alloreactive B cell responses by the suppression of T cell help. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):6077-84. PMID: 18424729.
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    89. Xiang Z, Ma LL, Manicassamy S, Ganesh BB, Williams P, Chari R, Chong A, Yin DP. CD4+ T cells are sufficient to elicit allograft rejection and major histocompatibility complex class I molecule is required to induce recurrent autoimmune diabetes after pancreas transplantation in mice. Transplantation. 2008 Apr 27; 85(8):1205-11. PMID: 18431243.
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    90. Ma L, Xiang Z, Sherrill TP, Wang L, Blackwell TS, Williams P, Chong A, Chari R, Yin DP. Bioluminescence imaging visualizes activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in mouse cardiac transplantation. Transplantation. 2008 Mar 27; 85(6):903-10. PMID: 18360274.
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    91. Ahmed EB, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Role of bacterial infections in allograft rejection. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar; 4(2):281-93. PMID: 20477057.
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    92. Lee DD, Grossman E, Chong AS. Cellular therapies for type 1 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2008 Feb; 40(2):147-54. PMID: 18283633.
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    93. Ding JW, Zhou T, Zeng H, Ma L, Verbeek JS, Yin D, Shen J, Chong AS. Hyperacute rejection by anti-Gal IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b is dependent on complement and Fc-gamma receptors. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 01; 180(1):261-8. PMID: 18097027.
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    94. Ding JW, Zhou T, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Ding CP, Tang IY, Byrne GW, Chong AS. Expression of complement regulatory proteins in accommodated xenografts induced by anti-alpha-Gal IgG1 in a rat-to-mouse model. Am J Transplant. 2008 Jan; 8(1):32-40. PMID: 17973967.
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    95. Li Y, Ma L, Shen J, Chong AS. Peripheral deletion of mature alloreactive B cells induced by costimulation blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17; 104(29):12093-8. PMID: 17609366.
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    96. Kirk AD, Baldwin WM, Cascalho MI, Chong AS, Sykes M, West LJ. American society of transplantation symposium on B cells in transplantation: harnessing humoral immunity from rodent models to clinical practice. Am J Transplant. 2007 Jun; 7(6):1464-70. PMID: 17511676.
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    97. Yin D, Tao J, Lee DD, Shen J, Hara M, Lopez J, Kuznetsov A, Philipson LH, Chong AS. Recovery of islet beta-cell function in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice: an indirect role for the spleen. Diabetes. 2006 Dec; 55(12):3256-63. PMID: 17130468.
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    98. Chen L, Wang T, Zhou P, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Molinero L, Nozaki T, Phillips T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Wang CR, Fairchild RL, Alegre ML, Chong A. TLR engagement prevents transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2006 Oct; 6(10):2282-91. PMID: 16970798.
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    99. Chong AS, Shen J, Tao J, Yin D, Kuznetsov A, Hara M, Philipson LH. Reversal of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice without spleen cell-derived beta cell regeneration. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1774-5. PMID: 16556844.
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    100. Yin D, Ding JW, Shen J, Ma L, Hara M, Chong AS. Liver ischemia contributes to early islet failure following intraportal transplantation: benefits of liver ischemic-preconditioning. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):60-8. PMID: 16433757.
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    101. Chong AS, Zeng H, Knight DA, Shen J, Meister GT, Williams JW, Waldman WJ. Concurrent antiviral and immunosuppressive activities of leflunomide in vivo. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):69-75. PMID: 16433758.
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    102. Yu P, Lee Y, Liu W, Krausz T, Chong A, Schreiber H, Fu YX. Intratumor depletion of CD4+ cells unmasks tumor immunogenicity leading to the rejection of late-stage tumors. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 07; 201(5):779-91. PMID: 15753211.
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    103. Zeng H, Waldman WJ, Yin DP, Knight DA, Shen J, Ma L, Meister GT, Chong AS, Williams JW. Mechanistic study of malononitrileamide FK778 in cardiac transplantation and CMV infection in rats. Transplantation. 2005 Jan 15; 79(1):17-22. PMID: 15714164.
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    104. Li D, Gál I, Vermes C, Alegre ML, Chong AS, Chen L, Shao Q, Adarichev V, Xu X, Koreny T, Mikecz K, Finnegan A, Glant TT, Zhang J. Cutting edge: Cbl-b: one of the key molecules tuning CD28- and CTLA-4-mediated T cell costimulation. J Immunol. 2004 Dec 15; 173(12):7135-9. PMID: 15585834.
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    105. Hara M, Yin D, Dizon RF, Shen J, Chong AS, Bindokas VP. A mouse model for studying intrahepatic islet transplantation. Transplantation. 2004 Aug 27; 78(4):615-8. PMID: 15446323.
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    106. Yin D, Zeng H, Ma L, Shen J, Xu H, Byrne GW, Chong AS. Cutting Edge: NK cells mediate IgG1-dependent hyperacute rejection of xenografts. J Immunol. 2004 Jun 15; 172(12):7235-8. PMID: 15187097.
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    107. Leventhal JR, Sun J, Zhang J, Galili U, Chong A, Baker M, Kaufman DB, Wright JR. Evidence that tilapia islets do not express alpha-(1,3)gal: implications for islet xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2004 May; 11(3):276-83. PMID: 15099208.
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    108. Ogawa H, Mohiuddin MM, Yin DP, Shen J, Chong AS, Galili U. Mouse-heart grafts expressing an incompatible carbohydrate antigen. II. Transition from accommodation to tolerance. Transplantation. 2004 Feb 15; 77(3):366-73. PMID: 14966409.
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    109. Xu H, Yin D, Naziruddin B, Chen L, Stark A, Wei Y, Lei Y, Shen J, Logan JS, Byrne GW, Chong AS. The in vitro and in vivo effects of anti-galactose antibodies on endothelial cell activation and xenograft rejection. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 01; 170(3):1531-9. PMID: 12538718.
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    110. Yin D, Dujovny N, Ma L, Varghese A, Shen J, Bishop DK, Chong AS. IFN-gamma production is specifically regulated by IL-10 in mice made tolerant with anti-CD40 ligand antibody and intact active bone. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):853-60. PMID: 12517950.
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    111. Martin MJ, Yin D, Adams C, Houtz J, Shen J, Chong AS, Sharma A, Byrne GW, Wiseman BS, Logan JS. Skin graft survival in genetically identical cloned pigs. Cloning Stem Cells. 2003; 5(2):117-21. PMID: 12930623.
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    112. Tanemura M, Chong AS, DiSesa VJ, Galili U. Direct killing of xenograft cells by CD8+ T cells of discordant xenograft recipients. Transplantation. 2002 Dec 15; 74(11):1587-95. PMID: 12490793.
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    113. Yin DP, Ma LL, Sankary HN, Shen J, Zeng H, Varghese A, Chong AS. Role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the rejection of concordant pancreas xenografts. Transplantation. 2002 Nov 15; 74(9):1236-41. PMID: 12451259.
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    114. Yin D, Ma L, Zeng H, Shen J, Chong AS. Allograft tolerance induced by intact active bone co-transplantation and anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody therapy. Transplantation. 2002 Aug 15; 74(3):345-54. PMID: 12177612.
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    115. Dujovny N, Varghese A, Shen J, Yin D, Ji S, Ma L, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Acute xenograft rejection mediated by antibodies produced independently of TH1/TH2 cytokine profiles. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jul; 2(6):526-34. PMID: 12118896.
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    116. Xu H, Sharma A, Lei Y, Okabe J, Wan H, Chong AS, Logan JS, Byrne GW. Development and characterization of anti-Gal B cell receptor transgenic Gal-/- mice. Transplantation. 2002 May 27; 73(10):1549-57. PMID: 12042639.
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    117. Yin D, Ma L, Varghese A, Shen J, Chong AS. Intact active bone transplantation synergizes with anti-CD40 ligand therapy to induce B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2002 May 15; 168(10):5352-8. PMID: 11994494.
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    118. Williams JW, Mital D, Chong A, Kottayil A, Millis M, Longstreth J, Huang W, Brady L, Jensik S. Experiences with leflunomide in solid organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2002 Feb 15; 73(3):358-66. PMID: 11884931.
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    119. Yin D, Ma L, Shen J, Byrne GW, Logan JS, Chong AS. CTLA-41g in combination with anti-CD40L prolongs xenograft survival and inhibits anti-gal ab production in GT-Ko mice. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jan; 2(1):41-7. PMID: 12095055.
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    120. Xu H, Sharma A, Chen L, Harrison C, Wei Y, Chong AS, Logan JS, Byrne GW, Shama A. The structure of anti-Gal immunoglobulin genes in naïve and stimulated Gal knockout mice. Transplantation. 2001 Dec 15; 72(11):1817-25. PMID: 11740394.
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    121. Regan RF, Wang Y, Ma X, Chong A, Guo Y. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases potentiates hemin toxicity in astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem. 2001 Nov; 79(3):545-55. PMID: 11701758.
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    122. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Ma LL, Shen J, Qin Y, Blinder L, Williams JW, Chong AS. Lewis rat pancreas, but not cardiac xenografts, are resistant to anti-gal antibody mediated hyperacute rejection. Transplantation. 2001 May 27; 71(10):1385-9. PMID: 11391223.
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    123. Woo J, Zhang W, Gao L, Shen J, Chong A, Buelow R. Combination of antilymphocyte globulin and leflunomide leads to superior grafts. Transplant Proc. 2001 Feb-Mar; 33(1-2):569. PMID: 11266962.
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    124. Knight DA, Hejmanowski AQ, Dierksheide JE, Williams JW, Chong AS, Waldman WJ. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 2001 Jan 15; 71(1):170-4. PMID: 11211189.
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    125. Jeffrey M, Martin S, Barr J, Chong A, Fraser JR. Onset of accumulation of PrPres in murine ME7 scrapie in relation to pathological and PrP immunohistochemical changes. J Comp Pathol. 2001 Jan; 124(1):20-8. PMID: 11428185.
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    126. Chong AS, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Blinder L, XiuLong X, Williams JW, Byrne G, Diamond LE, Logan JS. Non-depleting anti-CD4, but not anti-CD8, antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GT-Ko) mice. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Nov; 7(4):275-83. PMID: 11081762.
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    127. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Shen J, Ma LL, Blinder L, Foster P, Williams JW, Chong A. Efficacy of FK506, leflunomide, anti-CD4, and CTLA4IG treatments in rat to mouse pancreas xenograft transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1003-4. PMID: 10936320.
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    128. Chong AS, Blinder L, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Williams JW, Byrne G, Schwarz A, Diamond LS, Logan JE. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3)Galactose antibody production in alpha1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno- and allotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):844-5. PMID: 10936237.
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    129. Chong AS, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Blinder L, XiuLong X, Williams J, Byrne G, Diamond L, Logan J. Nondepleting anti-CD4 but not anti-CD8 antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1, 3-galactosyl-transferase knock-out mice. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1005. PMID: 10936321.
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    130. Tanemura M, Yin D, Chong A, Galili U. Differential immune response to carbohydrate epitopes on allo- and xenografts: implications for accommodation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):991-3. PMID: 10936316.
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    131. Chong A, Blinder L, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Williams JW, Byrne G, Schwarz A, Diamond LS, Logan JE. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3) galactose antibody production in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno and allo transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2000 Jun; 8(2):129-37. PMID: 11005319.
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    132. Tanemura M, Yin D, Chong AS, Galili U. Differential immune responses to alpha-gal epitopes on xenografts and allografts: implications for accommodation in xenotransplantation. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(3):301-10. PMID: 10675356.
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    133. Chong AS, Ma LL, Yin D, Blinder L, Shen J, Williams JW. Tolerance of T-independent xeno-antibody responses in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model is species-restricted but not tissue-specific. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Feb; 7(1):48-57. PMID: 10809057.
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    134. Li XR, Chong AS, Wu J, Roebuck KA, Kumar A, Parrillo JE, Rapp UR, Kimberly RP, Williams JW, Xu X. Transcriptional regulation of Fas gene expression by GA-binding protein and AP-1 in T cell antigen receptor.CD3 complex-stimulated T cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 03; 274(49):35203-10. PMID: 10575005.
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    135. Xu X, Shen J, Mall JW, Myers JA, Huang W, Blinder L, Saclarides TJ, Williams JW, Chong AS. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel immunomodulatory drug, leflunomide: mechanisms of action. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 01; 58(9):1405-13. PMID: 10513984.
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    136. Sankary HN, Yin DP, Chong AS, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen JK, Foster P, Liu LP, Li C, Williams JW. The portosystemic shunt protects liver against ischemic reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 1999 Oct 15; 68(7):958-63. PMID: 10532534.
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    137. Waldman WJ, Knight DA, Lurain NS, Miller DM, Sedmak DD, Williams JW, Chong AS. Novel mechanism of inhibition of cytomegalovirus by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1999 Sep 27; 68(6):814-25. PMID: 10515382.
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    138. Chong AS, Huang W, Liu W, Luo J, Shen J, Xu W, Ma L, Blinder L, Xiao F, Xu X, Clardy C, Foster P, Williams JA. In vivo activity of leflunomide: pharmacokinetic analyses and mechanism of immunosuppression. Transplantation. 1999 Jul 15; 68(1):100-9. PMID: 10428276.
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    139. Waldman WJ, Knight DA, Blinder L, Shen J, Lurain NS, Miller DM, Sedmak DD, Williams JW, Chong AS. Inhibition of cytomegalovirus in vitro and in vivo by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Intervirology. 1999; 42(5-6):412-8. PMID: 10702725.
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    140. Sankary HN, Yin DP, Chong AS, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen JK, Foster P, Williams JW. FK506 treatment in combination with leflunomide in hamster-to-rat heart and liver xenograft transplantation. Transplantation. 1998 Oct 15; 66(7):832-7. PMID: 9798690.
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    141. Shen J, Chong AS, Xiao F, Liu W, Huang W, Blinder L, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, McChesney L, Mital D, Williams JW. Histological characterization and pharmacological control of chronic rejection in xenogeneic and allogeneic heart transplantation. Transplantation. 1998 Sep 27; 66(6):692-8. PMID: 9771831.
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    142. Yin D, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen J, Sankary H, Williams JW, Chong AS. Induction of species-specific host accommodation in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model. J Immunol. 1998 Aug 15; 161(4):2044-51. PMID: 9712078.
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    143. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Chong AS, Ma LL, Shen J, Foster P, Williams JW. Protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on liver preservation-reperfusion injury in rats. Transplantation. 1998 Jul 27; 66(2):152-7. PMID: 9701256.
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    144. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Talor-Edwards C, Chong AS, Foster P, Shen J, Ma LL, Williams JW, Fathman CG. Anti-CD4 therapy in combined heart-kidney, heart-liver, and heart-small bowel allotransplants in high-responder rats. Transplantation. 1998 Jul 15; 66(1):1-5. PMID: 9679814.
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    145. Xu X, Fu XY, Plate J, Chong AS. IFN-gamma induces cell growth inhibition by Fas-mediated apoptosis: requirement of STAT1 protein for up-regulation of Fas and FasL expression. Cancer Res. 1998 Jul 01; 58(13):2832-7. PMID: 9661898.
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    146. Guo Z, Mital D, Shen J, Chong AS, Tian Y, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Immunosuppression preventing concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection is not sufficient to prevent recurrence of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Transplantation. 1998 May 27; 65(10):1310-4. PMID: 9625011.
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    147. Guo Z, Mital D, Shen J, Chong AS, Tian Y, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Differential effect of leflunomide on concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection and recurrence of autoimmune diabetes. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):463-4. PMID: 9532129.
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    148. Mital D, Guo Z, Tian Y, Shen J, Podlasek W, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, McChesney L, Chong A, Olack B, Williams J. Leflunomide-based immunosuppression for porcine islet xenotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):515. PMID: 9532154.
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    149. Guo Z, Mital D, Mo YY, Tian Y, Shen J, Chong AS, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Effect of gene gun-mediated CTLA4IG and Fas ligand gene transfection on concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):589. PMID: 9532189.
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    150. Siemasko K, Chong AS, Jäck HM, Gong H, Williams JW, Finnegan A. Inhibition of JAK3 and STAT6 tyrosine phosphorylation by the immunosuppressive drug leflunomide leads to a block in IgG1 production. J Immunol. 1998 Feb 15; 160(4):1581-8. PMID: 9469413.
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    151. Xu X, Williams JW, Shen J, Gong H, Yin DP, Blinder L, Elder RT, Sankary H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. In vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of the antiproliferative and immunosuppressive agent, brequinar sodium. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 15; 160(2):846-53. PMID: 9551920.
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    152. Chong AS, Ma LL, Shen J, Blinder L, Yin DP, Williams JW. Modification of humoral responses by the combination of leflunomide and cyclosporine in Lewis rats transplanted with hamster hearts. Transplantation. 1997 Dec 27; 64(12):1650-7. PMID: 9422397.
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    153. Xu X, Gong H, Blinder L, Shen J, Williams JW, Chong AS. Control of lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice by brequinar sodium: mechanisms of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Nov; 283(2):869-75. PMID: 9353408.
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    154. Shen J, Short J, Blinder L, Karademir S, Foster P, Sankary H, Williams JW, Chong AS. Quantitation of the changes in splenic architecture during the rejection of cardiac allografts or xenografts. Transplantation. 1997 Aug 15; 64(3):448-53. PMID: 9275112.
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    155. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Chong AS, Blinder L, Ma LL, Williams JW. Effect of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody combined with human CTLA4Ig on the survival of hamster liver and heart xenografts in Lewis rats. Transplantation. 1997 Jul 27; 64(2):317-21. PMID: 9256194.
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    156. Xu X, Blinder L, Shen J, Gong H, Finnegan A, Williams JW, Chong AS. In vivo mechanism by which leflunomide controls lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disease in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 01; 159(1):167-74. PMID: 9200452.
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    157. Elder RT, Xu X, Williams JW, Gong H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. The immunosuppressive metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726, affects murine T cells through two biochemical mechanisms. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 01; 159(1):22-7. PMID: 9200434.
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    158. Mital D, Guo Z, Chong AS, Fu Z, Tian Y, Foster PF, Jensik S, Shen J, Sankary HN, McChesney LP, Williams JW. Successful xenotransplantation of adult porcine islets in NOD and BALB/c mice with leflunomide and cyclosporine. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2166-7. PMID: 9193573.
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    159. Guo Z, Chong AS, Jandeska S, Sun WH, Tian Y, Podlasek W, Shen J, Mital D, Jensik S, Williams JW. Gene gun-mediated gene transfer and expression in rat islets. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2209-10. PMID: 9193594.
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    160. Guo Z, Chong AS, Tian Y, Shen J, Yin D, Mital D, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik S, Williams JW. Effect of leflunomide and cyclosporine on concordant xenogeneic islet transplantation in streptozotocin-induced and autoimmune diabetic mice. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2155. PMID: 9193568.
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    161. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Prolongation of rat islet allograft survival by the immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1997 Mar 15; 63(5):711-6. PMID: 9075843.
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    162. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Gebel H, Williams JW. In vivo effects of leflunomide on normal pancreatic islet and syngeneic islet graft function. Transplantation. 1997 Mar 15; 63(5):716-21. PMID: 9075844.
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    163. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Gebel H, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a potential immunosuppressant for pancreatic islet transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1997 Feb-Mar; 29(1-2):1296-7. PMID: 9123314.
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    164. Xu X, Chong AS. Vav in natural killer cells is tyrosine phosphorylated upon cross-linking of Fc gamma RIIIA and is constitutively associated with a serine/threonine kinase. Biochem J. 1996 Sep 01; 318 ( Pt 2):527-32. PMID: 8809042.
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    165. Xu X, Williams JW, Gong H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Two activities of the immunosuppressive metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726. Inhibition of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Aug 23; 52(4):527-34. PMID: 8759024.
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    166. Chong AS, Shen J, Xiao F, Blinder L, Wei L, Sankary H, Foster P, Williams J. Delayed xenograft rejection in the concordant hamster heart into Lewis rat model. Transplantation. 1996 Jul 15; 62(1):90-6. PMID: 8693552.
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    167. Chong AS. Receptors that turn on and turn off natural killer cells. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1996 Jul; 15(7):675-83. PMID: 8820783.
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    168. Foster PF, Kociss K, Shen J, Sankary HN, Mital D, Chong AS, Xiao F, Williams JW. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor immunomodulation in the rat cardiac transplantation model. Transplantation. 1996 Apr 15; 61(7):1122-5. PMID: 8623199.
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    169. Xiao F, Shen J, Chong A, Liu W, Foster P, Blinder HL, Sankary H, McChesney L, Mital D, Williams JW. Control and reversal of chronic xenograft rejection in hamster-to-rat cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1996 Apr; 28(2):691-2. PMID: 8623348.
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    170. Chong AS, Shen J, Xiao F, Blinder L, Foster P, Sankary H, Williams JW. Complete control of humoral and cell-mediated xenoreactions with the combination of leflunomide and cyclosporine. Transplant Proc. 1996 Apr; 28(2):684. PMID: 8623344.
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    171. Hope J, Shearman MS, Baxter HC, Chong A, Kelly SM, Price NC. Cytotoxicity of prion protein peptide (PrP106-126) differs in mechanism from the cytotoxic activity of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide, A beta 25-35. Neurodegeneration. 1996 Mar; 5(1):1-11. PMID: 8731376.
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    172. Siemasko KF, Chong AS, Williams JW, Bremer EG, Finnegan A. Regulation of B cell function by the immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1996 Feb 27; 61(4):635-42. PMID: 8610393.
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    173. Chong AS, Rezai K, Gebel HM, Finnegan A, Foster P, Xu X, Williams JW. Effects of leflunomide and other immunosuppressive agents on T cell proliferation in vitro. Transplantation. 1996 Jan 15; 61(1):140-5. PMID: 8560553.
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    174. Xu X, Chong AS. Cross-linking of CD45 on NK cells stimulates p56lck-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and IFN-gamma production. J Immunol. 1995 Dec 01; 155(11):5241-8. PMID: 7594536.
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    175. Xiao F, Chong A, Shen J, Yang J, Short J, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, Mital D, McChesney L, et al. Pharmacologically induced regression of chronic transplant rejection. Transplantation. 1995 Nov 27; 60(10):1065-72. PMID: 7482709.
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    176. Sankary HN, Chong A, Foster P, Brown E, Shen J, Kimura R, Rayudu G, Williams J. Inactivation of Kupffer cells after prolonged donor fasting improves viability of transplanted hepatic allografts. Hepatology. 1995 Oct; 22(4 Pt 1):1236-42. PMID: 7557876.
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    177. Edwards BS, Curry MS, Southon EA, Chong AS, Graf LH. Evidence for a dithiol-activated signaling pathway in natural killer cell avidity regulation of leukocyte function antigen-1: structural requirements and relationship to phorbol ester- and CD16-triggered pathways. Blood. 1995 Sep 15; 86(6):2288-301. PMID: 7662976.
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    178. Xu X, Williams JW, Bremer EG, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells by a novel immunosuppressive agent, leflunomide. J Biol Chem. 1995 May 26; 270(21):12398-403. PMID: 7759480.
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    179. Sankary H, Chong A, Foster P, Brown E, Williams J. Improved viability of hepatic allografts from fasted donors is associated with decreased peripheral TNF activity. J Surg Res. 1995 Mar; 58(3):337-43. PMID: 7885032.
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    180. Shen F, Xu XL, Graf LH, Chong AS. CD45-cross-linking stimulates IFN-gamma production in NK cells. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 15; 154(2):644-52. PMID: 7814873.
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    181. Xiao F, Chong AS, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Koukoulis G, Yang J, Frieders D, Williams JW. Leflunomide controls rejection in hamster to rat cardiac xenografts. Transplantation. 1994 Oct 15; 58(7):828-34. PMID: 7940718.
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    182. Chong AS, Boussy IA, Jiang XL, Lamas M, Graf LH. CD54/ICAM-1 is a costimulator of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cell Immunol. 1994 Aug; 157(1):92-105. PMID: 7518755.
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    183. Chong AS, Jiang XL, Scuderi P, Lamas M, Graf LH. ICAM-1 and LFA-3 enhance the ability of anti-CD3 mAb to stimulate interferon gamma production in interleukin-2-activated T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1994 Aug; 39(2):127-34. PMID: 7519126.
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    184. Foster PF, Xiao F, Kociss K, Chong AS, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Cohn S, Williams JW. Allograft ultraviolet-B irradiation in rat small intestinal transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1624-5. PMID: 8030062.
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    185. Foster PF, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Xiao F, Kociss K, Koukoulis G, Chong AS, Cohn S, Williams JW. Splanchnic transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1411-2. PMID: 8029960.
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    186. Xiao F, Chong A, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Williams JM, Frieders D, Williams JW. Effect of leflunomide in control of acute rejection in hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1263-5. PMID: 8029902.
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    187. Foster PF, Xiao F, Kociss K, Chong AS, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Cohn S, Williams JW. Leflunomide immunosuppression in rat small intestinal transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1599-600. PMID: 8030053.
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    188. Williams JW, Xiao F, Foster P, Clardy C, McChesney L, Sankary H, Chong AS. Leflunomide in experimental transplantation. Control of rejection and alloantibody production, reversal of acute rejection, and interaction with cyclosporine. Transplantation. 1994 Apr 27; 57(8):1223-31. PMID: 8178350.
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    189. Chong AS, Finnegan A, Jiang X, Gebel H, Sankary HN, Foster P, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a novel immunosuppressive agent. The mechanism of inhibition of T cell proliferation. Transplantation. 1993 Jun; 55(6):1361-6. PMID: 8390735.
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    190. Chong AS, Gebel H, Finnegan A, Petraitis EE, Jiang XL, Sankary HN, Foster P, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a novel immunomodulatory agent: in vitro analyses of the mechanism of immunosuppression. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):747-9. PMID: 8438466.
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    191. Williams JW, Xiao F, Foster PF, Chong A, Sharma S, Bartlett R, Sankary HN. Immunosuppressive effects of leflunomide in a cardiac allograft model. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):745-6. PMID: 8438465.
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    192. Sankary H, Chong A, Frye E, Scuderi P, Foster P, McChesney L, Williams J. Daily determinations of serum lymphotoxin allows for accurate early diagnosis of hepatic allograft rejection. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 2):928-30. PMID: 8442270.
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    193. Markham PN, Coon JS, Chong AS, Gebel HM. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the multidrug resistance gene. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):96-7. PMID: 7679846.
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    194. Chong AS, Markham PN, Gebel HM, Bines SD, Coon JS. Diverse multidrug-resistance-modification agents inhibit cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1993; 36(2):133-9. PMID: 8093856.
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    195. Chong AS, Boussy IA, Graf LH, Scuderi P. Stimulation of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta secretion in IL-2-activated T cells: costimulatory roles for LFA-1, LFA-2, CD44, and CD45 molecules. Cell Immunol. 1992 Oct 01; 144(1):69-79. PMID: 1356634.
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    196. Lee BW, Yap HK, Quah TC, Chong A, Seah CC. T cell immunodeficiency in dyskeratosis congenita. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Apr; 67(4):524-6. PMID: 1580685.
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    197. Chong AS, Staren ED, Scuderi P. Monoclonal antibodies anti-CD3, anti-TCR alpha beta and anti-CD2 act synergistically with tumor cells to stimulate lymphokine-activated killer cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to secrete interferon gamma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1992; 35(5):335-41. PMID: 1382856.
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    198. Coon JS, Wang YZ, Bines SD, Markham PN, Chong AS, Gebel HM. Multidrug resistance activity in human lymphocytes. Hum Immunol. 1991 Oct; 32(2):134-40. PMID: 1720770.
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    199. Chong AS, Pinkard JK, Lam KS, Scuderi P, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Ability of cell-sized beads bearing tumor cell membrane proteins to stimulate LAK cells to secrete interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Cell Immunol. 1991 Apr 15; 134(1):96-110. PMID: 1901521.
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    200. Chong AS, Bier DE, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM. Gamma-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can express LAK activity. Int J Cell Cloning. 1991 Jan; 9(1):65-77. PMID: 2010657.
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    201. Scuderi P, Finley PR, Shon BY, Udall JN, Roe DJ, Chong AS. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor secretion in leukocytes from alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient humans. Immunol Invest. 1990 Oct-Dec; 19(5-6):453-61. PMID: 1705919.
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    202. Scuderi P, Woo L, Chong AS, Liu R, Salmon SE. Modification of the clonogenic assay for the detection of lymphokine activated killer cell activity. J Immunol Methods. 1990 Mar 27; 128(1):119-26. PMID: 2109014.
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    203. Chong AS, Ybarrondo B, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM, Scuderi P. Phenotypic analyses of lymphokine-activated killer cells that release interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1990; 31(4):255-9. PMID: 2143102.
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    204. Chong AS, Scuderi P, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM. Tumor targets stimulate IL-2 activated killer cells to produce interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol. 1989 Mar 15; 142(6):2133-9. PMID: 2493506.
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    205. Chong AS, Aleksijevic A, Scuderi P, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell clones. Ability of CD3+, LAK cell clones to produce interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor upon stimulation with tumor targets. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989; 29(4):270-8. PMID: 2502310.
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    206. Hersh EM, Scuderi P, Grimes WJ, Chong A, Brailey JL, Gschwind CR, Salmon SE. Cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cell supernatants. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989; 30(1):65-70. PMID: 2480843.
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    207. Chong AS, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Blocking of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell mediated cytotoxicity by cell-sized beads bearing tumor cell proteins. J Immunol. 1988 Dec 15; 141(12):4418-24. PMID: 2848896.
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    208. Chong AS, Parish CR. Cell surface receptors for sulphated polysaccharides: a potential marker for macrophage subsets. Immunology. 1986 Jun; 58(2):277-84. PMID: 3011656.
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    209. Chong AS, Parish CR. Nonimmune lymphocyte-macrophage interaction. II. Evidence that the interaction involves sulfated polysaccharide recognition. Cell Immunol. 1985 May; 92(2):277-89. PMID: 3995592.
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    210. Chong AS, Parish CR. Nonimmune lymphocyte-macrophage interaction. I. Quantification by an automated colorimetric assay. Cell Immunol. 1985 May; 92(2):265-76. PMID: 3995591.
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