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Kay Macleod

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentBen May Department of Cancer Research
AddressChicago IL 60637
Email
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    The deadliest aspect of the majority of human cancers is metastasis, the multi-step process by which cancer cells escape the confines of the primary site (such as breast, pancreas or other organs) and travel in the circulation to distant sites (such as brain, liver or lungs) where they can lodge, invade and grow out as secondary tumors or metastases.
    Many factors play into cancer metastasis including how disseminating tumor cells respond to stresses such as nutrient deprivation and altered cellular attachments. These stresses are known to activate a process known as autophagy and research in the Macleod Lab seeks to understand and clarify the role of autophagy in tumor growth and progression to metastasis.
    We are particularly interested in understanding how defects in the turnover of mitochondria (the energy factory of the cell) by mitophagy, leads to tumor invasion and metastasis. Our research addresses how mitophagy is induced and how mitophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis. This includes examining how physiological stresses, such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation remodel the mitochondrial reticulum, how mitochondrial stress is sensed in the cell and how mitophagy is coordinated with other mitochondrial quality control pathways to promote cellular function. These mechanisms are frequently deregulated in cancers and research in the Macleod Lab also examines how defective mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles and while their function in metabolism and control of apoptosis is well known, work in the Macleod Lab also examines how mitochondria modulate cell fate more broadly, including stemness and in metaplasia, and how they modulate cell motility and invasiveness. This is performed using novel mouse models, engineered cell lines and primary human tumor samples with a focus on breast, pancreas and liver cancers.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Edinburgh, ScotlandB.Sc. (Hons)07/1986Molecular Biology
    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Glasgow, ScotlandPh.D.07/1990Cancer Biology
    Institut Pasteur, FrancePost-doctoral fellow03/1993Ets Transcription Factors
    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MAPost-doctoral fellow09/1996The RB tumor suppressor

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Poole LP, Macleod KF. Mitophagy in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Apr; 78(8):3817-3851. PMID: 33580835.
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    2. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, Abeliovich H, Abildgaard MH, Abudu YP, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adamopoulos IE, Adeli K, Adolph TE, Adornetto A, Aflaki E, Agam G, Agarwal A, Aggarwal BB, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Agrewala JN, Agrotis A, Aguilar PV, Ahmad ST, Ahmed ZM, Ahumada-Castro U, Aits S, Aizawa S, Akkoc Y, Akoumianaki T, Akpinar HA, Al-Abd AM, Al-Akra L, Al-Gharaibeh A, Alaoui-Jamali MA, Alberti S, Alcocer-Gómez E, Alessandri C, Ali M, Alim Al-Bari MA, Aliwaini S, Alizadeh J, Almacellas E, Almasan A, Alonso A, Alonso GD, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Álvarez ÉMC, Alves S, Alves da Costa C, Alzaharna MM, Amadio M, Amantini C, Amaral C, Ambrosio S, Amer AO, Ammanathan V, An Z, Andersen SU, Andrabi SA, Andrade-Silva M, Andres AM, Angelini S, Ann D, Anozie UC, Ansari MY, Antas P, Antebi A, Antón Z, Anwar T, Apetoh L, Apostolova N, Araki T, Araki Y, Arasaki K, Araújo WL, Araya J, Arden C, Arévalo MA, Arguelles S, Arias E, Arikkath J, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong-James D, Arnauné-Pelloquin L, Aroca A, Arroyo DS, Arsov I, Artero R, Asaro DML, Aschner M, Ashrafizadeh M, Ashur-Fabian O, Atanasov AG, Au AK, Auberger P, Auner HW, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Ávalos Y, Aveic S, Aveleira CA, Avin-Wittenberg T, Aydin Y, Ayton S, Ayyadevara S, Azzopardi M, Baba M, Backer JM, Backues SK, Bae DH, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek A, Baek SH, Baek SH, Bagetta G, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai X, Bai Y, Bairagi N, Baksi S, Balbi T, Baldari CT, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Ballester M, Balazadeh S, Balzan R, Bandopadhyay R, Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Bánréti Á, Bao Y, Baptista MS, Baracca A, Barbati C, Bargiela A, Barilà D, Barlow PG, Barmada SJ, Barreiro E, Barreto GE, Bartek J, Bartel B, Bartolome A, Barve GR, Basagoudanavar SH, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Basu A, Batoko H, Batten I, Baulieu EE, Baumgarner BL, Bayry J, Beale R, Beau I, Beaumatin F, Bechara LRG, Beck GR, Beers MF, Begun J, Behrends C, Behrens GMN, Bei R, Bejarano E, Bel S, Behl C, Belaid A, Belgareh-Touzé N, Bellarosa C, Belleudi F, Belló Pérez M, Bello-Morales R, Beltran JSO, Beltran S, Benbrook DM, Bendorius M, Benitez BA, Benito-Cuesta I, Bensalem J, Berchtold MW, Berezowska S, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Bergmann A, Berliocchi L, Berlioz-Torrent C, Bernard A, Berthoux L, Besirli CG, Besteiro S, Betin VM, Beyaert R, Bezbradica JS, Bhaskar K, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhuiyan MS, Bhutia SK, Bi L, Bi X, Biden TJ, Bijian K, Billes VA, Binart N, Bincoletto C, Birgisdottir AB, Bjorkoy G, Blanco G, Blas-Garcia A, Blasiak J, Blomgran R, Blomgren K, Blum JS, Boada-Romero E, Boban M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boeuf P, Boland B, Bomont P, Bonaldo P, Bonam SR, Bonfili L, Bonifacino JS, Boone BA, Bootman MD, Bordi M, Borner C, Bornhauser BC, Borthakur G, Bosch J, Bose S, Botana LM, Botas J, Boulanger CM, Boulton ME, Bourdenx M, Bourgeois B, Bourke NM, Bousquet G, Boya P, Bozhkov PV, Bozi LHM, Bozkurt TO, Brackney DE, Brandts CH, Braun RJ, Braus GH, Bravo-Sagua R, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brest P, Bringer MA, Briones-Herrera A, Broaddus VC, Brodersen P, Brodsky JL, Brody SL, Bronson PG, Bronstein JM, Brown CN, Brown RE, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bruno D, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Bucci C, Buchrieser C, Bueno M, Buitrago-Molina LE, Buraschi S, Buch S, Buchan JR, Buckingham EM, Budak H, Budini M, Bultynck G, Burada F, Burgoyne JR, Burón MI, Bustos V, Büttner S, Butturini E, Byrd A, Cabas I, Cabrera-Benitez S, Cadwell K, Cai J, Cai L, Cai Q, Cairó M, Calbet JA, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA, Call JA, Calvani R, Calvo AC, Calvo-Rubio Barrera M, Camara NO, Camonis JH, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell EM, Campbell-Valois FX, Campello S, Campesi I, Campos JC, Camuzard O, Cancino J, Candido de Almeida D, Canesi L, Caniggia I, Canonico B, Cantí C, Cao B, Caraglia M, Caramés B, Carchman EH, Cardenal-Muñoz E, Cardenas C, Cardenas L, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carle GF, Carleton G, Carloni S, Carmona-Gutierrez D, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1. Autophagy. 2021 Jan; 17(1):1-382. PMID: 33634751.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Springer MZ, Poole LP, Drake LE, Bock-Hughes A, Boland ML, Smith AG, Hart J, Chourasia AH, Liu I, Bozek G, Macleod KF. BNIP3-dependent mitophagy promotes cytosolic localization of LC3B and metabolic homeostasis in the liver. Autophagy. 2021 Feb 08; 1-17. PMID: 33459136.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kay F. Macleod. Mitophagy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer. Annual Review of Cancer Biology. 2020; 4:41 - 60.
    5. Schubert AD, Channah Broner E, Agrawal N, London N, Pearson A, Gupta A, Wali N, Seiwert TY, Wheelan S, Lingen M, Macleod K, Allen H, Chatterjee A, Vassiliki S, Gaykalova D, Hoque MO, Sidransky D, Suresh K, Izumchenko E. Somatic mitochondrial mutation discovery using ultra-deep sequencing of the mitochondrial genome reveals spatial tumor heterogeneity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2020 02 28; 471:49-60. PMID: 31830557.
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    6. Anderson CM, Macleod KF. Autophagy and cancer cell metabolism. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2019; 347:145-190. PMID: 31451213.
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    7. Humpton TJ, Alagesan B, DeNicola GM, Lu D, Yordanov GN, Leonhardt CS, Yao MA, Alagesan P, Zaatari MN, Park Y, Skepper JN, Macleod KF, Perez-Mancera PA, Murphy MP, Evan GI, Vousden KH, Tuveson DA. Oncogenic KRAS Induces NIX-Mediated Mitophagy to Promote Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Discov. 2019 09; 9(9):1268-1287. PMID: 31263025.
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    8. Smith AG, Macleod KF. Autophagy, cancer stem cells and drug resistance. J Pathol. 2019 04; 247(5):708-718. PMID: 30570140.
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    9. Fessenden TB, Beckham Y, Perez-Neut M, Ramirez-San Juan G, Chourasia AH, Macleod KF, Oakes PW, Gardel ML. Dia1-dependent adhesions are required by epithelial tissues to initiate invasion. J Cell Biol. 2018 04 02; 217(4):1485-1502. PMID: 29437785.
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    10. Mowers EE, Sharifi MN, Macleod KF. Functions of autophagy in the tumor microenvironment and cancer metastasis. FEBS J. 2018 05; 285(10):1751-1766. PMID: 29356327.
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    11. Kathayat RS, Cao Y, Elvira PD, Sandoz PA, Zaballa ME, Springer MZ, Drake LE, Macleod KF, van der Goot FG, Dickinson BC. Active and dynamic mitochondrial S-depalmitoylation revealed by targeted fluorescent probes. Nat Commun. 2018 01 23; 9(1):334. PMID: 29362370.
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    12. Malone CF, Emerson C, Ingraham R, Barbosa W, Guerra S, Yoon H, Liu LL, Michor F, Haigis M, Macleod KF, Maertens O, Cichowski K. mTOR and HDAC Inhibitors Converge on the TXNIP/Thioredoxin Pathway to Cause Catastrophic Oxidative Stress and Regression of RAS-Driven Tumors. Cancer Discov. 2017 12; 7(12):1450-1463. PMID: 28963352.
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    13. Drake LE, Springer MZ, Poole LP, Kim CJ, Macleod KF. Expanding perspectives on the significance of mitophagy in cancer. Semin Cancer Biol. 2017 12; 47:110-124. PMID: 28450176.
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    14. Zhou D, Springer MZ, Xu D, Liu D, Hudmon A, Macleod KF, Meroueh SO. Small molecules inhibit STAT3 activation, autophagy, and cancer cell anchorage-independent growth. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017 06 15; 25(12):2995-3005. PMID: 28438385.
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    15. Qiang L, Sample A, Shea CR, Soltani K, Macleod KF, He YY. Autophagy gene ATG7 regulates ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Autophagy. 2017; 13(12):2086-2103. PMID: 28933598.
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    16. Springer MZ, Macleod KF. In Brief: Mitophagy: mechanisms and role in human disease. J Pathol. 2016 11; 240(3):253-255. PMID: 27453450.
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    17. Mowers EE, Sharifi MN, Macleod KF. Autophagy in cancer metastasis. Oncogene. 2017 03 23; 36(12):1619-1630. PMID: 27593926.
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    18. Mowers EE, Sharifi MN, Macleod KF. Novel insights into how autophagy regulates tumor cell motility. Autophagy. 2016 09; 12(9):1679-80. PMID: 27439889.
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    19. Sharifi MN, Mowers EE, Macleod KF. Autophagic degradation of focal adhesions underlies metastatic cancer dissemination. Mol Cell Oncol. 2017; 4(2):e1198299. PMID: 28401177.
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    20. Sharifi MN, Mowers EE, Drake LE, Collier C, Chen H, Zamora M, Mui S, Macleod KF. Autophagy Promotes Focal Adhesion Disassembly and Cell Motility of Metastatic Tumor Cells through the Direct Interaction of Paxillin with LC3. Cell Rep. 2016 05 24; 15(8):1660-72. PMID: 27184837.
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    21. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, Adachi H, Adams CM, Adams PD, Adeli K, Adhihetty PJ, Adler SG, Agam G, Agarwal R, Aghi MK, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguilar PV, Aguirre-Ghiso J, Airoldi EM, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akporiaye ET, Al-Rubeai M, Albaiceta GM, Albanese C, Albani D, Albert ML, Aldudo J, Algül H, Alirezaei M, Alloza I, Almasan A, Almonte-Beceril M, Alnemri ES, Alonso C, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Alvarez S, Alvarez-Erviti L, Alves S, Amadoro G, Amano A, Amantini C, Ambrosio S, Amelio I, Amer AO, Amessou M, Amon A, An Z, Anania FA, Andersen SU, Andley UP, Andreadi CK, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anel A, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Antonioli M, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Aquila S, Aquilano K, Araki K, Arama E, Aranda A, Araya J, Arcaro A, Arias E, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong JL, Arnould T, Arsov I, Asanuma K, Askanas V, Asselin E, Atarashi R, Atherton SS, Atkin JD, Attardi LD, Auberger P, Auburger G, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Avantaggiati ML, Avrahami L, Awale S, Azad N, Bachetti T, Backer JM, Bae DH, Bae JS, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek SH, Baghdiguian S, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Balaji KN, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Balzan R, Banerjee R, Bánhegyi G, Bao H, Barbeau B, Barrachina MD, Barreiro E, Bartel B, Bartolomé A, Bassham DC, Bassi MT, Bast RC, Basu A, Batista MT, Batoko H, Battino M, Bauckman K, Baumgarner BL, Bayer KU, Beale R, Beaulieu JF, Beck GR, Becker C, Beckham JD, Bédard PA, Bednarski PJ, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Behrens GM, Behrns KE, Bejarano E, Belaid A, Belleudi F, Bénard G, Berchem G, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Berkhout B, Berliocchi L, Bernard A, Bernard M, Bernassola F, Bertolotti A, Bess AS, Besteiro S, Bettuzzi S, Bhalla S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhutia SK, Biagosch C, Bianchi MW, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Billes V, Bincoletto C, Bingol B, Bird SW, Bitoun M, Bjedov I, Blackstone C, Blanc L, Blanco GA, Blomhoff HK, Boada-Romero E, Böckler S, Boes M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boise LH, Bolino A, Boman A, Bonaldo P, Bordi M, Bosch J, Botana LM, Botti J, Bou G, Bouché M, Bouchecareilh M, Boucher MJ, Boulton ME, Bouret SG, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady N, Braga VM, Brancolini C, Braus GH, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brennan LA, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bringer MA, Brini M, Brito GC, Brodin B, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brown K, Broxmeyer HE, Bruhat A, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Buch S, Buchan AM, Budak H, Bulavin DV, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Bumbasirevic V, Burelle Y, Burke RE, Burmeister M, Bütikofer P, Caberlotto L, Cadwell K, Cahova M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calatayud S, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell GR, Campbell M, Campello S, Candau R, Caniggia I, Cantoni L, Cao L, Caplan AB, Caraglia M, Cardinali C, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carleton LA, Carlin CR, Carloni S, Carlsson SR, Carmona-Gutierrez D, Carneiro LA, Carnevali O, Carra S, Carrier A, Carroll B, Casas C, Casas J, Cassinelli G, Castets P, Castro-Obregon S, Cavallini G, Ceccherini I, Cecconi F, Cederbaum AI, Ceña V, Cenci S, Cerella C, Cervia D, Cetrullo S, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chagin AS, Chai CY, Chakrabarti G, Chamilos G, Chan EY, Chan MT, Chandra D, Chandra P, Chang CP, Chang RC, Chang TY, Chatham JC, Chatterjee S, Chauhan S, Che Y, Cheetham ME, Cheluvappa R, Chen CJ, Chen G, Chen GC, Chen G, Chen H, Chen JW, Chen JK, Chen M, Chen M, Chen P, Chen Q, Chen Q, Chen SD, Chen S, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen WJ, Chen WQ, Chen W, Chen X, Chen YH, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen YQ, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng H, Cheong H, Cherry S, Chesney J, Cheung CH, Chevet E, Chi HC, Chi SG, Chiacchiera F, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiariello M, Chieppa M, Chin LS, Chiong M, Chiu GN, Cho DH, Cho SG, Cho WC, Cho YY, Cho YS, Choi AM, Choi EJ, Choi EK, Choi J, Choi ME, Choi SI, Chou TF, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chow KC, Chowdhury K, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chun T, Chung H, Chung T, Chung YL, Chwae YJ, Cianfanelli V, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016; 12(1):1-222. PMID: 26799652.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Chourasia AH, Tracy K, Frankenberger C, Boland ML, Sharifi MN, Drake LE, Sachleben JR, Asara JM, Locasale JW, Karczmar GS, Macleod KF. Mitophagy defects arising from BNip3 loss promote mammary tumor progression to metastasis. . 2015 Sep; 16(9):1145-63. PMID: 26232272.
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    23. Fan X, Macleod K, Mustafi D, Conzen SD, Markiewicz E, Zamora M, Vosicky J, Mueller J, Karczmar GS. Correlation of In Vivo and Ex Vivo ADC and T2 of In Situ and Invasive Murine Mammary Cancers. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0129212. PMID: 26208092.
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    24. Chourasia AH, Boland ML, Macleod KF. Mitophagy and cancer. Cancer Metab. 2015; 3:4. PMID: 25810907.
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    25. Sharifi MN, Mowers EE, Drake LE, Macleod KF. Measuring autophagy in stressed cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1292:129-50. PMID: 25804753.
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    26. Chourasia AH, Macleod KF. Tumor suppressor functions of BNIP3 and mitophagy. Autophagy. 2015; 11(10):1937-8. PMID: 26315353.
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    27. Fan X, Mustafi D, Markiewicz E, Zamora M, Vosicky J, Leinroth A, Mueller J, Macleod K, Conzen SD, Karczmar GS. Mammary cancer initiation and progression studied with magnetic resonance imaging. Breast Cancer Res. 2014 Dec 16; 16(6):495. PMID: 25510596.
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    28. Markiewicz E, Fan X, Mustafi D, Zamora M, Roman BB, Jansen SA, Macleod K, Conzen SD, Karczmar GS. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media. Magn Reson Imaging. 2015 Jan; 33(1):161-5. PMID: 25179139.
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    29. Kuo WL, Sharifi MN, Lingen MW, Ahmed O, Liu J, Nagilla M, Macleod KF, Cohen EE. p62/SQSTM1 accumulation in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck predicts sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway inhibitors. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90171. PMID: 24599075.
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    30. Drake LE, Macleod KF. Tumour suppressor gene function in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts: from tumour cells via EMT and back again? J Pathol. 2014 Feb; 232(3):283-8. PMID: 24254977.
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    31. Boland ML, Chourasia AH, Macleod KF. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer. Front Oncol. 2013 Dec 02; 3:292. PMID: 24350057.
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    32. Glick D, Zhang W, Beaton M, Marsboom G, Gruber M, Simon MC, Hart J, Dorn GW, Brady MJ, Macleod KF. BNip3 regulates mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism in the liver. Mol Cell Biol. 2012 Jul; 32(13):2570-84. PMID: 22547685.
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    33. Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D'Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr; 8(4):445-544. PMID: 22966490.
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