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Kenneth S. Polonsky

TitleAcademic Dean
InstitutionUniversity of Chicago
DepartmentPresident's Office
AddressChicago IL 60637
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My laboratory is interested in the role of abnormal insulin secretion in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We are currently using mouse models of diabetes to define the mechanisms of ß-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic ß-cell death is a very important mechanism contributing to reduced insulin secretion in diabetes. Using Pdx1 deficiency as the experimental model we have determined that all three forms of programmed cell death autophagy, apoptosis and programmed necrosis all contribute to the loss of beta cell mass. We are currently exploring novel approaches to interrupting these pathways. These studies have focused on the role of the BH3-only molecules Puma and Bim in mediating pancreatic ß-cell death. We have demonstrated that reducing expression of Puma and Bim reduces apoptosis of the pancreatic ß-cell in different diabetes models leading to an enhancement of insulin secretion, an increase in ß-cell mass and a lowering of blood glucose.


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    1988Elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation
    1993American Federation of Clinical Research Young Investigator Award
    1994Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award of the American Diabetes Association (Lilly Award)
    1995Elected to the Association of American Physicians
    1997National Institutes of Health MERIT Award
    2006Elected to the National Academy of Medicine
    2009Elected Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Sun J, Mao LQ, Polonsky KS, Ren DC. Pancreatic ß-Cell Death due to Pdx-1 Deficiency Requires Multi-BH Domain Protein Bax but Not Bak. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 24; 291(26):13529-34. PMID: 27137932.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Levine AS, Alpern RJ, Andrews NC, Antman K, Balser JR, Berg JM, Davis PB, Fitz JG, Golden RN, Goldman L, Jameson JL, Lee VS, Polonsky KS, Rappley MD, Reece EA, Rothman PB, Schwinn DA, Shapiro LJ, Spiegel AM. Research in academic medical centers: two threats to sustainable support. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 27; 7(289):289fs22. PMID: 26019216.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Polonsky KS, Rubenstein AH. Donald F. Steiner, MD, 1930-2014: pioneering diabetes researcher. Diabetologia. 2015 Mar; 58(3):419-21. PMID: 25617020.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Philipson LH, Bell G, Polonsky KS. Donald F. Steiner MD, 1930-2014: discoverer of proinsulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 27; 112(4):940-1. PMID: 25561547.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. ß-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care. 2014 Jun; 37(6):1751-8. PMID: 24812433.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ren D, Sun J, Mao L, Ye H, Polonsky KS. BH3-only molecule Bim mediates ß-cell death in IRS2 deficiency. Diabetes. 2014 Oct; 63(10):3378-87. PMID: 24760140.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. ß-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun; 99(6):1983-92. PMID: 24712577.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ren D, Sun J, Wang C, Ye H, Mao L, Cheng EH, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Role of BH3-only molecules Bim and Puma in ß-cell death in Pdx1 deficiency. Diabetes. 2014 Aug; 63(8):2744-50. PMID: 24658302.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Chowdhury S, Reeds DN, Crimmins DL, Patterson BW, Laciny E, Wang S, Tran HD, Griest TA, Rometo DA, Dunai J, Wallendorf MJ, Ladenson JH, Polonsky KS, Wice BM. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Feb 15; 306(4):G301-9. PMID: 24356886.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Pedersen MG, Mosekilde E, Polonsky KS, Luciani DS. Complex patterns of metabolic and Ca²? entrainment in pancreatic islets by oscillatory glucose. Biophys J. 2013 Jul 02; 105(1):29-39. PMID: 23823221.
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    11. Polonsky KS. Introduction of Arthur H. Rubenstein. J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov; 122(11):4283-8. PMID: 23114608.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Polonsky KS. The past 200 years in diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 04; 367(14):1332-40. PMID: 23034021.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Han DH, Kim SH, Higashida K, Jung SR, Polonsky KS, Klein S, Holloszy JO. Ginsenoside Re rapidly reverses insulin resistance in muscles of high-fat diet fed rats. Metabolism. 2012 Nov; 61(11):1615-21. PMID: 22571876.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Wice BM, Reeds DN, Tran HD, Crimmins DL, Patterson BW, Dunai J, Wallendorf MJ, Ladenson JH, Villareal DT, Polonsky KS. Xenin-25 amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in humans with normal and impaired glucose tolerance but not type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2012 Jul; 61(7):1793-800. PMID: 22522617.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Klein S, Fabbrini E, Patterson BW, Polonsky KS, Schiavon CA, Correa JL, Salles JE, Wajchenberg BL, Cohen R. Moderate effect of duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery on glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jun; 20(6):1266-72. PMID: 22262157.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Reeds DN, Patterson BW, Okunade A, Holloszy JO, Polonsky KS, Klein S. Ginseng and ginsenoside Re do not improve ß-cell function or insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011 May; 34(5):1071-6. PMID: 21411505.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Fujimoto K, Ford EL, Tran H, Wice BM, Crosby SD, Dorn GW, Polonsky KS. Loss of Nix in Pdx1-deficient mice prevents apoptotic and necrotic ß cell death and diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2010 Nov; 120(11):4031-9. PMID: 20978346.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Fujimoto K, Chen Y, Polonsky KS, Dorn GW. Targeting cyclophilin D and the mitochondrial permeability transition enhances beta-cell survival and prevents diabetes in Pdx1 deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 01; 107(22):10214-9. PMID: 20479245.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Cheverud JM, Fawcett GL, Jarvis JP, Norgard EA, Pavlicev M, Pletscher LS, Polonsky KS, Ye H, Bell GI, Semenkovich CF. Calpain-10 is a component of the obesity-related quantitative trait locus Adip1. J Lipid Res. 2010 May; 51(5):907-13. PMID: 20388922.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wice BM, Wang S, Crimmins DL, Diggs-Andrews KA, Althage MC, Ford EL, Tran H, Ohlendorf M, Griest TA, Wang Q, Fisher SJ, Ladenson JH, Polonsky KS. Xenin-25 potentiates glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide action via a novel cholinergic relay mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 25; 285(26):19842-53. PMID: 20421298.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Villareal DT, Robertson H, Bell GI, Patterson BW, Tran H, Wice B, Polonsky KS. TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 affects the risk of type 2 diabetes by modulating incretin action. Diabetes. 2010 Feb; 59(2):479-85. PMID: 19934000.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Johnson JD, Otani K, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Impaired insulin secretion in transgenic mice over-expressing calpastatin in pancreatic ß-cells. Islets. 2009 Nov-Dec; 1(3):242-8. PMID: 21099278.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Fujimoto K, Polonsky KS. Pdx1 and other factors that regulate pancreatic beta-cell survival. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Nov; 11 Suppl 4:30-7. PMID: 19817786.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Evanoff B, Cottler L, Nagarajan R, Garbutt J, Polonsky K. The Washington University Institute for Clinical and Translational Sciences. Clin Transl Sci. 2009 Oct; 2(5):322-4. PMID: 20443915.
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    25. Kawai T, Ng MC, Hayes MG, Yoshiuchi I, Tsuchiya T, Robertson H, Cox NJ, Polonsky KS, Bell GI, Ehrmann DA. Variation in the perilipin gene (PLIN) affects glucose and lipid metabolism in non-Hispanic white women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Dec; 86(3):186-92. PMID: 19782423.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Fujimoto K, Hanson PT, Tran H, Ford EL, Han Z, Johnson JD, Schmidt RE, Green KG, Wice BM, Polonsky KS. Autophagy regulates pancreatic beta cell death in response to Pdx1 deficiency and nutrient deprivation. J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct 02; 284(40):27664-73. PMID: 19654319.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Villareal DT, Koster JC, Robertson H, Akrouh A, Miyake K, Bell GI, Patterson BW, Nichols CG, Polonsky KS. Kir6.2 variant E23K increases ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and is associated with impaired insulin release and enhanced insulin sensitivity in adults with normal glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2009 Aug; 58(8):1869-78. PMID: 19491206.
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    28. Blanchard MS, Meltzer D, Polonsky KS. To nap or not to nap? Residents' work hours revisited. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 21; 360(21):2242-4. PMID: 19458371.
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    29. Cooper JA, Polonsky KS, Schoeller DA. Serum leptin levels in obese males during over- and underfeeding. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec; 17(12):2149-54. PMID: 19444224.
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    30. Muslin AJ, Kornfeld S, Polonsky KS. The physician scientist training program in internal medicine at Washington University School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2009 Apr; 84(4):468-71. PMID: 19318780.
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    31. Kawamori D, Kurpad AJ, Hu J, Liew CW, Shih JL, Ford EL, Herrera PL, Polonsky KS, McGuinness OP, Kulkarni RN. Insulin signaling in alpha cells modulates glucagon secretion in vivo. Cell Metab. 2009 Apr; 9(4):350-61. PMID: 19356716.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Uchizono Y, Baldwin AC, Sakuma H, Pugh W, Polonsky KS, Hara M. Role of HNF-1alpha in regulating the expression of genes involved in cellular growth and proliferation in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Apr; 84(1):19-26. PMID: 19181415.
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    33. Polonsky KS, Klein S. Gastric banding to treat obesity: band-aid or breakthrough? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug; 4(8):421. PMID: 18648393.
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    34. Jeffrey KD, Alejandro EU, Luciani DS, Kalynyak TB, Hu X, Li H, Lin Y, Townsend RR, Polonsky KS, Johnson JD. Carboxypeptidase E mediates palmitate-induced beta-cell ER stress and apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 17; 105(24):8452-7. PMID: 18550819.
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    35. Althage MC, Ford EL, Wang S, Tso P, Polonsky KS, Wice BM. Targeted ablation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-producing cells in transgenic mice reduces obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 27; 283(26):18365-76. PMID: 18420580.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Little RR, Rohlfing CL, Tennill AL, Madsen RW, Polonsky KS, Myers GL, Greenbaum CJ, Palmer JP, Rogatsky E, Stein DT. Standardization of C-peptide measurements. Clin Chem. 2008 Jun; 54(6):1023-6. PMID: 18420730.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Villareal DT, Banks MR, Patterson BW, Polonsky KS, Klein S. Weight loss therapy improves pancreatic endocrine function in obese older adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jun; 16(6):1349-54. PMID: 18388888.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hara M, Shen J, Pugh W, Polonsky KS, Le Beau MM, Bell GI. Sustained expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 leads to loss of pancreatic beta-cells by apoptosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007 Nov; 115(10):654-61. PMID: 18058600.
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    39. Wiedmeyer HM, Polonsky KS, Myers GL, Little RR, Greenbaum CJ, Goldstein DE, Palmer JP. International comparison of C-peptide measurements. Clin Chem. 2007 Apr; 53(4):784-7. PMID: 17332147.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Johnson JD, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Alejandro EU, Han Z, Kalynyak TB, Li H, Beith JL, Gross J, Warnock GL, Townsend RR, Permutt MA, Polonsky KS. Insulin protects islets from apoptosis via Pdx1 and specific changes in the human islet proteome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 19; 103(51):19575-80. PMID: 17158802.
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    41. Johnson JD, Ford EL, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Kusser KL, Luciani DS, Han Z, Tran H, Randall TD, Lund FE, Polonsky KS. Suppressed insulin signaling and increased apoptosis in CD38-null islets. Diabetes. 2006 Oct; 55(10):2737-46. PMID: 17003338.
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    42. Shapiro AM, Ricordi C, Hering BJ, Auchincloss H, Lindblad R, Robertson RP, Secchi A, Brendel MD, Berney T, Brennan DC, Cagliero E, Alejandro R, Ryan EA, DiMercurio B, Morel P, Polonsky KS, Reems JA, Bretzel RG, Bertuzzi F, Froud T, Kandaswamy R, Sutherland DE, Eisenbarth G, Segal M, Preiksaitis J, Korbutt GS, Barton FB, Viviano L, Seyfert-Margolis V, Bluestone J, Lakey JR. International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 28; 355(13):1318-30. PMID: 17005949.
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    43. Mohanakumar T, Narayanan K, Desai N, Ramachandran S, Shenoy S, Jendrisak M, Susskind BM, Olack B, Benshoff N, Phelan DL, Brennan DC, Fernandez LA, Odorico JS, Polonsky KS. A significant role for histocompatibility in human islet transplantation. Transplantation. 2006 Jul 27; 82(2):180-7. PMID: 16858280.
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    44. Polonsky KS. Retinol-binding protein 4, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 15; 354(24):2596-8. PMID: 16775241.
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    45. Otani K, Polonsky KS, Holloszy JO, Han DH. Inhibition of calpain results in impaired contraction-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep; 291(3):E544-8. PMID: 16705056.
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    46. Luciani DS, Misler S, Polonsky KS. Ca2+ controls slow NAD(P)H oscillations in glucose-stimulated mouse pancreatic islets. J Physiol. 2006 Apr 15; 572(Pt 2):379-92. PMID: 16455690.
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    47. Dalla Man C, Campioni M, Polonsky KS, Basu R, Rizza RA, Toffolo G, Cobelli C. Two-hour seven-sample oral glucose tolerance test and meal protocol: minimal model assessment of beta-cell responsivity and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic individuals. Diabetes. 2005 Nov; 54(11):3265-73. PMID: 16249454.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Kim SH, Abbasi F, Chu JW, McLaughlin TL, Lamendola C, Polonsky KS, Reaven GM. Rosiglitazone reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rate and increases insulin clearance in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant individuals. Diabetes. 2005 Aug; 54(8):2447-52. PMID: 16046313.
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    49. Levisetti MG, Polonsky KS. Diabetic pancreatic beta cells ARNT all they should be. Cell Metab. 2005 Aug; 2(2):78-80. PMID: 16098823.
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    50. Dalla Man C, Yarasheski KE, Caumo A, Robertson H, Toffolo G, Polonsky KS, Cobelli C. Insulin sensitivity by oral glucose minimal models: validation against clamp. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec; 289(6):E954-9. PMID: 16014353.
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    51. Ohsugi M, Cras-Méneur C, Zhou Y, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Johnson JD, Luciani DS, Polonsky KS, Permutt MA. Reduced expression of the insulin receptor in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells reveals multiple roles of insulin signaling in gene expression, proliferation, insulin content, and secretion. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11; 280(6):4992-5003. PMID: 15546857.
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    52. Bernal-Mizrachi E, Fatrai S, Johnson JD, Ohsugi M, Otani K, Han Z, Polonsky KS, Permutt MA. Defective insulin secretion and increased susceptibility to experimental diabetes are induced by reduced Akt activity in pancreatic islet beta cells. J Clin Invest. 2004 Oct; 114(7):928-36. PMID: 15467831.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Brennan DC, Shannon MB, Koch MJ, Polonsky KS, Desai N, Shapiro J. Portal vein thrombosis complicating islet transplantation in a recipient with the Factor V Leiden mutation. Transplantation. 2004 Jul 15; 78(1):172-3. PMID: 15257060.
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    54. Johnson JD, Han Z, Otani K, Ye H, Zhang Y, Wu H, Horikawa Y, Misler S, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. RyR2 and calpain-10 delineate a novel apoptosis pathway in pancreatic islets. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 04; 279(23):24794-802. PMID: 15044459.
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    55. Johnson JD, Kuang S, Misler S, Polonsky KS. Ryanodine receptors in human pancreatic beta cells: localization and effects on insulin secretion. FASEB J. 2004 May; 18(7):878-80. PMID: 15033925.
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    56. Otani K, Han DH, Ford EL, Garcia-Roves PM, Ye H, Horikawa Y, Bell GI, Holloszy JO, Polonsky KS. Calpain system regulates muscle mass and glucose transporter GLUT4 turnover. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14; 279(20):20915-20. PMID: 15014085.
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    57. Mathews V, Hanson PT, Ford E, Fujita J, Polonsky KS, Graubert TA. Recruitment of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells to sites of pancreatic beta-cell injury. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):91-8. PMID: 14693702.
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    58. Palmer JP, Fleming GA, Greenbaum CJ, Herold KC, Jansa LD, Kolb H, Lachin JM, Polonsky KS, Pozzilli P, Skyler JS, Steffes MW. C-peptide is the appropriate outcome measure for type 1 diabetes clinical trials to preserve beta-cell function: report of an ADA workshop, 21-22 October 2001. Diabetes. 2004 Jan; 53(1):250-64. PMID: 14693724.
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    59. Ehrmann DA, Breda E, Corcoran MC, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Polonsky KS. Impaired beta-cell compensation to dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 287(2):E241-6. PMID: 14665448.
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    60. Jackson RS, Creemers JW, Farooqi IS, Raffin-Sanson ML, Varro A, Dockray GJ, Holst JJ, Brubaker PL, Corvol P, Polonsky KS, Ostrega D, Becker KL, Bertagna X, Hutton JC, White A, Dattani MT, Hussain K, Middleton SJ, Nicole TM, Milla PJ, Lindley KJ, O'Rahilly S. Small-intestinal dysfunction accompanies the complex endocrinopathy of human proprotein convertase 1 deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2003 Nov; 112(10):1550-60. PMID: 14617756.
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    61. Otani K, Kulkarni RN, Baldwin AC, Krutzfeldt J, Ueki K, Stoffel M, Kahn CR, Polonsky KS. Reduced beta-cell mass and altered glucose sensing impair insulin-secretory function in betaIRKO mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan; 286(1):E41-9. PMID: 14519599.
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    62. Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Organ alchemy: producing insulin in the liver. Nat Med. 2003 May; 9(5):504-5. PMID: 12724755.
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    63. Zhou YP, Sreenan S, Pan CY, Currie KP, Bindokas VP, Horikawa Y, Lee JP, Ostrega D, Ahmed N, Baldwin AC, Cox NJ, Fox AP, Miller RJ, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. A 48-hour exposure of pancreatic islets to calpain inhibitors impairs mitochondrial fuel metabolism and the exocytosis of insulin. Metabolism. 2003 May; 52(5):528-34. PMID: 12759879.
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    64. Johnson JD, Ahmed NT, Luciani DS, Han Z, Tran H, Fujita J, Misler S, Edlund H, Polonsky KS. Increased islet apoptosis in Pdx1+/- mice. J Clin Invest. 2003 Apr; 111(8):1147-60. PMID: 12697734.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Bindokas VP, Kuznetsov A, Sreenan S, Polonsky KS, Roe MW, Philipson LH. Visualizing superoxide production in normal and diabetic rat islets of Langerhans. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11):9796-801. PMID: 12514170.
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    66. Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, Wu JA, Zhang L, Dey L, Pugh W, Rue PA, Polonsky KS, Yuan CS. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Diabetes. 2002 Jun; 51(6):1851-8. PMID: 12031973.
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    67. Xie JT, Zhou YP, Dey L, Attele AS, Wu JA, Gu M, Polonsky KS, Yuan CS. Ginseng berry reduces blood glucose and body weight in db/db mice. Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr; 9(3):254-8. PMID: 12046868.
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    68. Ehrmann DA, Breda E, Cavaghan MK, Bajramovic S, Imperial J, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, Polonsky KS. Insulin secretory responses to rising and falling glucose concentrations are delayed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetologia. 2002 Apr; 45(4):509-17. PMID: 12032626.
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    69. Hofmann EA, Polonsky KS, Weiss RE. Diagnosis of acromegaly in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2002 Mar-Apr; 8(2):113-8. PMID: 11942776.
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    70. Breda E, Toffolo G, Polonsky KS, Cobelli C. Insulin release in impaired glucose tolerance: oral minimal model predicts normal sensitivity to glucose but defective response times. Diabetes. 2002 Feb; 51 Suppl 1:S227-33. PMID: 11815484.
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    71. Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Diabetes mellitus and genetically programmed defects in beta-cell function. Nature. 2001 Dec 13; 414(6865):788-91. PMID: 11742410.
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    72. Shih DQ, Screenan S, Munoz KN, Philipson L, Pontoglio M, Yaniv M, Polonsky KS, Stoffel M. Loss of HNF-1alpha function in mice leads to abnormal expression of genes involved in pancreatic islet development and metabolism. Diabetes. 2001 Nov; 50(11):2472-80. PMID: 11679424.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Tuttle RL, Gill NS, Pugh W, Lee JP, Koeberlein B, Furth EE, Polonsky KS, Naji A, Birnbaum MJ. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell growth and survival by the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt1/PKBalpha. Nat Med. 2001 Oct; 7(10):1133-7. PMID: 11590437.
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    74. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 27; 345(13):971-80. PMID: 11575290.
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    75. Sreenan SK, Zhou YP, Otani K, Hansen PA, Currie KP, Pan CY, Lee JP, Ostrega DM, Pugh W, Horikawa Y, Cox NJ, Hanis CL, Burant CF, Fox AP, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Calpains play a role in insulin secretion and action. Diabetes. 2001 Sep; 50(9):2013-20. PMID: 11522666.
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    76. Brandt A, Katschinski M, Arnold R, Polonsky KS, Göke B, Byrne MM. GLP-1-induced alterations in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretory dose-response curve. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 281(2):E242-7. PMID: 11440899.
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    77. Gautier JF, Wilson C, Weyer C, Mott D, Knowler WC, Cavaghan M, Polonsky KS, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Low acute insulin secretory responses in adult offspring of people with early onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001 Aug; 50(8):1828-33. PMID: 11473045.
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    78. Polonsky KS, Semenkovich CF. The pancreatic beta cell heats up: UCP2 and insulin secretion in diabetes. Cell. 2001 Jun 15; 105(6):705-7. PMID: 11440712.
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    79. Grimberg A, Ferry RJ, Kelly A, Koo-McCoy S, Polonsky K, Glaser B, Permutt MA, Aguilar-Bryan L, Stafford D, Thornton PS, Baker L, Stanley CA. Dysregulation of insulin secretion in children with congenital hyperinsulinism due to sulfonylurea receptor mutations. Diabetes. 2001 Feb; 50(2):322-8. PMID: 11272143.
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    80. Toffolo G, Breda E, Cavaghan MK, Ehrmann DA, Polonsky KS, Cobelli C. Quantitative indexes of beta-cell function during graded up&down glucose infusion from C-peptide minimal models. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan; 280(1):E2-10. PMID: 11120653.
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    81. Breda E, Cavaghan MK, Toffolo G, Polonsky KS, Cobelli C. Oral glucose tolerance test minimal model indexes of beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2001 Jan; 50(1):150-8. PMID: 11147781.
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    82. Sreenan SK, Mittal AA, Dralyuk F, Pugh WL, Polonsky KS, Roe MW. Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulates insulin secretion by a Ca2+-independent mechanism in Zucker diabetic fatty rat islets of Langerhans. Metabolism. 2000 Dec; 49(12):1579-87. PMID: 11145120.
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    83. Horikawa Y, Oda N, Cox NJ, Li X, Orho-Melander M, Hara M, Hinokio Y, Lindner TH, Mashima H, Schwarz PE, del Bosque-Plata L, Horikawa Y, Oda Y, Yoshiuchi I, Colilla S, Polonsky KS, Wei S, Concannon P, Iwasaki N, Schulze J, Baier LJ, Bogardus C, Groop L, Boerwinkle E, Hanis CL, Bell GI. Genetic variation in the gene encoding calpain-10 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet. 2000 Oct; 26(2):163-75. PMID: 11017071.
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    84. Hollingdal M, Juhl CB, Pincus SM, Sturis J, Veldhuis JD, Polonsky KS, Pørksen N, Schmitz O. Failure of physiological plasma glucose excursions to entrain high-frequency pulsatile insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000 Aug; 49(8):1334-40. PMID: 10923634.
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    85. Cavaghan MK, Ehrmann DA, Polonsky KS. Interactions between insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the development of glucose intolerance. J Clin Invest. 2000 Aug; 106(3):329-33. PMID: 10930434.
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    86. Chin-Chance C, Polonsky KS, Schoeller DA. Twenty-four-hour leptin levels respond to cumulative short-term energy imbalance and predict subsequent intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Aug; 85(8):2685-91. PMID: 10946866.
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    87. Polonsky KS. Dynamics of insulin secretion in obesity and diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun; 24 Suppl 2:S29-31. PMID: 10997604.
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    88. Jones CN, Abbasi F, Carantoni M, Polonsky KS, Reaven GM. Roles of insulin resistance and obesity in regulation of plasma insulin concentrations. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Mar; 278(3):E501-8. PMID: 10710505.
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    89. Zhou YP, Pena JC, Roe MW, Mittal A, Levisetti M, Baldwin AC, Pugh W, Ostrega D, Ahmed N, Bindokas VP, Philipson LH, Hanahan D, Thompson CB, Polonsky KS. Overexpression of Bcl-x(L) in beta-cells prevents cell death but impairs mitochondrial signal for insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb; 278(2):E340-51. PMID: 10662719.
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    90. Plat L, Leproult R, L'Hermite-Baleriaux M, Fery F, Mockel J, Polonsky KS, Van Cauter E. Metabolic effects of short-term elevations of plasma cortisol are more pronounced in the evening than in the morning. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Sep; 84(9):3082-92. PMID: 10487669.
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    91. Melander A, Olsson J, Lindberg G, Salzman A, Howard T, Stang P, Lydick E, Emslie-Smith A, Boyle DI, Evans JM, Macdonald TM, Bain J, Sullivan F. 35th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes : Brussels, Belgium, 28 September-2 October 1999. Diabetologia. 1999 Aug; 42(Suppl 1):A1-A330. PMID: 27770183.
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    92. Zhou YP, Cockburn BN, Pugh W, Polonsky KS. Basal insulin hypersecretion in insulin-resistant Zucker diabetic and Zucker fatty rats: role of enhanced fuel metabolism. Metabolism. 1999 Jul; 48(7):857-64. PMID: 10421226.
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    93. Sreenan S, Pick AJ, Levisetti M, Baldwin AC, Pugh W, Polonsky KS. Increased beta-cell proliferation and reduced mass before diabetes onset in the nonobese diabetic mouse. Diabetes. 1999 May; 48(5):989-96. PMID: 10331402.
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    94. Wiesenthal SR, Sandhu H, McCall RH, Tchipashvili V, Yoshii H, Polonsky K, Shi ZQ, Lewis GF, Mari A, Giacca A. Free fatty acids impair hepatic insulin extraction in vivo. Diabetes. 1999 Apr; 48(4):766-74. PMID: 10102693.
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    95. Polonsky KS. Evolution of beta-cell dysfunction in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999; 107 Suppl 4:S124-7. PMID: 10522836.
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    96. Sreenan SK, Cockburn BN, Baldwin AC, Ostrega DM, Levisetti M, Grupe A, Bell GI, Stewart TA, Roe MW, Polonsky KS. Adaptation to hyperglycemia enhances insulin secretion in glucokinase mutant mice. Diabetes. 1998 Dec; 47(12):1881-8. PMID: 9836519.
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    97. Dukes ID, Sreenan S, Roe MW, Levisetti M, Zhou YP, Ostrega D, Bell GI, Pontoglio M, Yaniv M, Philipson L, Polonsky KS. Defective pancreatic beta-cell glycolytic signaling in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 18; 273(38):24457-64. PMID: 9733737.
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    98. Byrne MM, Gliem K, Wank U, Arnold R, Katschinski M, Polonsky KS, Göke B. Glucagon-like peptide 1 improves the ability of the beta-cell to sense and respond to glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 1998 Aug; 47(8):1259-65. PMID: 9703326.
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    99. Pontoglio M, Sreenan S, Roe M, Pugh W, Ostrega D, Doyen A, Pick AJ, Baldwin A, Velho G, Froguel P, Levisetti M, Bonner-Weir S, Bell GI, Yaniv M, Polonsky KS. Defective insulin secretion in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1998 May 15; 101(10):2215-22. PMID: 9593777.
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    100. Zhou YP, Teng D, Dralyuk F, Ostrega D, Roe MW, Philipson L, Polonsky KS. Apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells. Evidence for the role of intracellular Ca2+ stores and arachidonic acid metabolism. J Clin Invest. 1998 Apr 15; 101(8):1623-32. PMID: 9541492.
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    101. Pick A, Clark J, Kubstrup C, Levisetti M, Pugh W, Bonner-Weir S, Polonsky KS. Role of apoptosis in failure of beta-cell mass compensation for insulin resistance and beta-cell defects in the male Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Diabetes. 1998 Mar; 47(3):358-64. PMID: 9519740.
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    102. Maggs DG, Buchanan TA, Burant CF, Cline G, Gumbiner B, Hsueh WA, Inzucchi S, Kelley D, Nolan J, Olefsky JM, Polonsky KS, Silver D, Valiquett TR, Shulman GI. Metabolic effects of troglitazone monotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Feb 01; 128(3):176-85. PMID: 9454525.
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    103. McCall RH, Wiesenthal SR, Shi ZQ, Polonsky K, Giacca A. Insulin acutely suppresses glucose production by both peripheral and hepatic effects in normal dogs. Am J Physiol. 1998 02; 274(2):E346-56. PMID: 9486168.
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    104. Polonsky KS, Sturis J, Van Cauter E. Temporal profiles and clinical significance of pulsatile insulin secretion. Horm Res. 1998; 49(3-4):178-84. PMID: 9550122.
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    105. Herman WH, Fajans SS, Smith MJ, Polonsky KS, Bell GI, Halter JB. Diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine in nondiabetic subjects with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha/MODY1 gene. Diabetes. 1997 Nov; 46(11):1749-54. PMID: 9356021.
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    106. Maheux P, Chen YD, Polonsky KS, Reaven GM. Evidence that insulin can directly inhibit hepatic glucose production. Diabetologia. 1997 Nov; 40(11):1300-6. PMID: 9389422.
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    107. Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS, Scheen AJ. Roles of circadian rhythmicity and sleep in human glucose regulation. Endocr Rev. 1997 Oct; 18(5):716-38. PMID: 9331550.
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    108. Regazzi R, Verchere CB, Halban PA, Polonsky KS. Insulin production: from gene to granule. Diabetologia. 1997 Oct; 40 Suppl 3:B33-8. PMID: 9345643.
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    109. Cockburn BN, Ostrega DM, Sturis J, Kubstrup C, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Changes in pancreatic islet glucokinase and hexokinase activities with increasing age, obesity, and the onset of diabetes. Diabetes. 1997 Sep; 46(9):1434-9. PMID: 9287043.
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    110. Chien EK, Hara M, Rouard M, Yano H, Phillippe M, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Increase in serum leptin and uterine leptin receptor messenger RNA levels during pregnancy in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Aug 18; 237(2):476-80. PMID: 9268737.
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    111. Cavaghan MK, Ehrmann DA, Byrne MM, Polonsky KS. Treatment with the oral antidiabetic agent troglitazone improves beta cell responses to glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. J Clin Invest. 1997 Aug 01; 100(3):530-7. PMID: 9239399.
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    112. Polonsky KS, Byrne MM, Sturis J. Alternative insulin delivery systems: how demanding should the patient be? Diabetologia. 1997 Jul; 40 Suppl 2:S97-101. PMID: 9248709.
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    113. Ehrmann DA, Schneider DJ, Sobel BE, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Troglitazone improves defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, ovarian steroidogenesis, and fibrinolysis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jul; 82(7):2108-16. PMID: 9215280.
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    114. Jones CN, Pei D, Staris P, Polonsky KS, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Alterations in the glucose-stimulated insulin secretory dose-response curve and in insulin clearance in nondiabetic insulin-resistant individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun; 82(6):1834-8. PMID: 9177392.
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    115. Warren-Perry MG, Manley SE, Ostrega D, Polonsky K, Mussett S, Brown P, Turner RC. A novel point mutation in the insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May; 82(5):1629-31. PMID: 9141561.
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    116. Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Sturis J, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Feb; 82(2):524-30. PMID: 9024248.
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    117. Wang X, Zinkel S, Polonsky K, Fuchs E. Transgenic studies with a keratin promoter-driven growth hormone transgene: prospects for gene therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jan 07; 94(1):219-26. PMID: 8990189.
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    118. Del Sindaco P, Casucci G, Pampanelli S, Polonsky K, Fanelli C, Torlone E, Santeusanio F, Brunetti P, Bolli GB. Late post-prandial hypoglycaemia as the sole presenting feature of secreting pancreatic beta-cell adenoma in a subtotally gastrectomized patient. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Jan; 136(1):96-9. PMID: 9037134.
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    119. Yamagata K, Oda N, Kaisaki PJ, Menzel S, Furuta H, Vaxillaire M, Southam L, Cox RD, Lathrop GM, Boriraj VV, Chen X, Cox NJ, Oda Y, Yano H, Le Beau MM, Yamada S, Nishigori H, Takeda J, Fajans SS, Hattersley AT, Iwasaki N, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Polonsky KS, Bell GI, et al. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY3) Nature. 1996 Dec 05; 384(6608):455-8. PMID: 8945470.
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    120. Sinha MK, Sturis J, Ohannesian J, Magosin S, Stephens T, Heiman ML, Polonsky KS, Caro JF. Ultradian oscillations of leptin secretion in humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Nov 21; 228(3):733-8. PMID: 8941346.
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    121. MacDonald MJ, Tang J, Polonsky KS. Low mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in pancreatic islets of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Diabetes. 1996 Nov; 45(11):1626-30. PMID: 8866570.
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    122. Byrne MM, Sturis J, Menzel S, Yamagata K, Fajans SS, Dronsfield MJ, Bain SC, Hattersley AT, Velho G, Froguel P, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Altered insulin secretory responses to glucose in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects with mutations in the diabetes susceptibility gene MODY3 on chromosome 12. Diabetes. 1996 Nov; 45(11):1503-10. PMID: 8866553.
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    123. Biston P, Van Cauter E, Ofek G, Linkowski P, Polonsky KS, Degaute JP. Diurnal variations in cardiovascular function and glucose regulation in normotensive humans. Hypertension. 1996 Nov; 28(5):863-71. PMID: 8901836.
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    124. Sreenan S, Sturis J, Pugh W, Burant CF, Polonsky KS. Prevention of hyperglycemia in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat by treatment with metformin or troglitazone. Am J Physiol. 1996 Oct; 271(4 Pt 1):E742-7. PMID: 8897863.
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    125. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Bowden DW, Halter JB, Polonsky KS. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Diabet Med. 1996 Sep; 13(9 Suppl 6):S90-5. PMID: 8894490.
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    126. Glaum SR, Hara M, Bindokas VP, Lee CC, Polonsky KS, Bell GI, Miller RJ. Leptin, the obese gene product, rapidly modulates synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Aug; 50(2):230-5. PMID: 8700128.
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    127. Gumbiner B, Van Cauter E, Beltz WF, Ditzler TM, Griver K, Polonsky KS, Henry RR. Abnormalities of insulin pulsatility and glucose oscillations during meals in obese noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients: effects of weight reduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jun; 81(6):2061-8. PMID: 8964829.
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    128. Scheen AJ, Sturis J, Polonsky KS, Van Cauter E. Alterations in the ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion and plasma glucose in aging. Diabetologia. 1996 May; 39(5):564-72. PMID: 8739916.
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    129. Montgomery TM, Nelson RW, Feldman EC, Robertson K, Polonsky KS. Basal and glucagon-stimulated plasma C-peptide concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with diabetes mellitus, and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med. 1996 May-Jun; 10(3):116-22. PMID: 8743209.
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    130. Byrne MM, Sturis J, Sobel RJ, Polonsky KS. Elevated plasma glucose 2 h postchallenge predicts defects in beta-cell function. Am J Physiol. 1996 Apr; 270(4 Pt 1):E572-9. PMID: 8928761.
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    131. Velho G, Byrne MM, Clément K, Sturis J, Pueyo ME, Blanché H, Vionnet N, Fiet J, Passa P, Robert JJ, Polonsky KS, Froguel P. Clinical phenotypes, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in kindreds with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness due to mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) gene mutation. Diabetes. 1996 Apr; 45(4):478-87. PMID: 8603770.
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    132. Tokuyama Y, Fan Z, Furuta H, Makielski JC, Polonsky KS, Bell GI, Yano H. Rat inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir6.2: cloning electrophysiological characterization, and decreased expression in pancreatic islets of male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Mar 27; 220(3):532-8. PMID: 8607800.
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    133. Polonsky KS, Sturis J, Bell GI. Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - a genetically programmed failure of the beta cell to compensate for insulin resistance. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 21; 334(12):777-83. PMID: 8592553.
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    134. Tang J, Pugh W, Polonsky KS, Zhang H. Preservation of insulin secretory responses to P2 purinoceptor agonists in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol. 1996 Mar; 270(3 Pt 1):E504-12. PMID: 8638699.
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    135. Robbins DC, Andersen L, Bowsher R, Chance R, Dinesen B, Frank B, Gingerich R, Goldstein D, Widemeyer HM, Haffner S, Hales CN, Jarett L, Polonsky K, Porte D, Skyler J, Webb G, Gallagher K. Report of the American Diabetes Association's Task Force on standardization of the insulin assay. Diabetes. 1996 Feb; 45(2):242-56. PMID: 8549870.
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    136. Bell GI, Pilkis SJ, Weber IT, Polonsky KS. Glucokinase mutations, insulin secretion, and diabetes mellitus. Annu Rev Physiol. 1996; 58:171-86. PMID: 8815790.
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    137. Roe MW, Worley JF, Tokuyama Y, Philipson LH, Sturis J, Tang J, Dukes ID, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. NIDDM is associated with loss of pancreatic beta-cell L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jan; 270(1 Pt 1):E133-40. PMID: 8772485.
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    138. Plat L, Byrne MM, Sturis J, Polonsky KS, Mockel J, Féry F, Van Cauter E. Effects of morning cortisol elevation on insulin secretion and glucose regulation in humans. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jan; 270(1 Pt 1):E36-42. PMID: 8772471.
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    139. Frank SA, Roland DC, Sturis J, Byrne MM, Refetoff S, Polonsky KS, Van Cauter E. Effects of aging on glucose regulation during wakefulness and sleep. Am J Physiol. 1995 Dec; 269(6 Pt 1):E1006-16. PMID: 8572190.
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    140. Tokuyama Y, Sturis J, DePaoli AM, Takeda J, Stoffel M, Tang J, Sun X, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Evolution of beta-cell dysfunction in the male Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Diabetes. 1995 Dec; 44(12):1447-57. PMID: 7589853.
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    141. O'Rahilly S, Gray H, Humphreys PJ, Krook A, Polonsky KS, White A, Gibson S, Taylor K, Carr C. Brief report: impaired processing of prohormones associated with abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and adrenal function. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 23; 333(21):1386-90. PMID: 7477119.
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    142. Sturis J, Pugh WL, Tang J, Polonsky KS. Prevention of diabetes does not completely prevent insulin secretory defects in the ZDF rat. Am J Physiol. 1995 Oct; 269(4 Pt 1):E786-92. PMID: 7485496.
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    143. Byrne MM, Sturis J, O'Meara NM, Polonsky KS. Insulin secretion in insulin-resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes. Metabolism. 1995 Aug; 44(8):1067-73. PMID: 7637649.
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    144. Stoffel M, Tokuyama Y, Trabb JB, German MS, Tsaar ML, Jan LY, Polonsky KS, Bell GI. Cloning of rat KATP-2 channel and decreased expression in pancreatic islets of male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 26; 212(3):894-9. PMID: 7626127.
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    145. Ehrmann DA, Sturis J, Byrne MM, Karrison T, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Insulin secretory defects in polycystic ovary syndrome. Relationship to insulin sensitivity and family history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jul; 96(1):520-7. PMID: 7615824.
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    146. Byrne MM, Sturis J, Fajans SS, Ortiz FJ, Stoltz A, Stoffel M, Smith MJ, Bell GI, Halter JB, Polonsky KS. Altered insulin secretory responses to glucose in subjects with a mutation in the MODY1 gene on chromosome 20. Diabetes. 1995 Jun; 44(6):699-704. PMID: 7789636.
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    147. Polonsky KS. Lilly Lecture 1994. The beta-cell in diabetes: from molecular genetics to clinical research. Diabetes. 1995 Jun; 44(6):705-17. PMID: 7789637.
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    148. Ryan EA, Imes S, Liu D, McManus R, Finegood DT, Polonsky KS, Sturis J. Defects in insulin secretion and action in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 1995 May; 44(5):506-12. PMID: 7729607.
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    149. Ostrega D, Polonsky K, Nagi D, Yudkin J, Cox LJ, Clark PM, Hales CN. Measurement of proinsulin and intermediates. Validation of immunoassay methods by high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes. 1995 Apr; 44(4):437-40. PMID: 7698513.
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    150. Sturis J, Scheen AJ, Leproult R, Polonsky KS, van Cauter E. 24-hour glucose profiles during continuous or oscillatory insulin infusion. Demonstration of the functional significance of ultradian insulin oscillations. J Clin Invest. 1995 Apr; 95(4):1464-71. PMID: 7706450.
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    151. O'Meara NM, Sturis J, Herold KC, Ostrega DM, Polonsky KS. Alterations in the patterns of insulin secretion before and after diagnosis of IDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995 Apr; 18(4):568-71. PMID: 7497873.
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    152. Sturis J, Knudsen C, O'Meara NM, Thomsen JS, Mosekilde E, Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS. Phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow insulin and glucose oscillations. Chaos. 1995 Mar; 5(1):193-199. PMID: 12780173.
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    153. Byrne MM, Sturis J, Polonsky KS. Insulin secretion and clearance during low-dose graded glucose infusion. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jan; 268(1 Pt 1):E21-7. PMID: 7840177.
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    154. O'Meara NM, Cabana VG, Lukens JR, Loharikar B, Forte TM, Polonsky KS, Getz GS. Heparin-induced lipolysis in hypertriglyceridemic subjects results in the formation of atypical HDL particles. J Lipid Res. 1994 Dec; 35(12):2178-90. PMID: 7897316.
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    155. Van Cauter EV, Polonsky KS, Blackman JD, Roland D, Sturis J, Byrne MM, Scheen AJ. Abnormal temporal patterns of glucose tolerance in obesity: relationship to sleep-related growth hormone secretion and circadian cortisol rhythmicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Dec; 79(6):1797-805. PMID: 7989487.
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    156. Iwashima Y, Kondoh-Abiko A, Seino S, Takeda J, Eto M, Polonsky KS, Makino I. Reduced levels of messenger ribonucleic acid for calcium channel, glucose transporter-2, and glucokinase are associated with alterations in insulin secretion in fasted rats. Endocrinology. 1994 Sep; 135(3):1010-7. PMID: 8070343.
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    157. Sturis J, Pugh WL, Tang J, Ostrega DM, Polonsky JS, Polonsky KS. Alterations in pulsatile insulin secretion in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Am J Physiol. 1994 Aug; 267(2 Pt 1):E250-9. PMID: 8074204.
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    158. Polonsky KS, Gumbiner B, Ostrega D, Griver K, Tager H, Henry RR. Alterations in immunoreactive proinsulin and insulin clearance induced by weight loss in NIDDM. Diabetes. 1994 Jul; 43(7):871-7. PMID: 8013750.
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    159. Lewis GF, Steiner G, Polonsky KS, Weller B, Zinman B. A new method for comparing portal and peripheral venous insulin delivery in humans: tolbutamide versus insulin infusion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Jul; 79(1):66-70. PMID: 8027255.
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    160. Sturis J, Kurland IJ, Byrne MM, Mosekilde E, Froguel P, Pilkis SJ, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Compensation in pancreatic beta-cell function in subjects with glucokinase mutations. Diabetes. 1994 May; 43(5):718-23. PMID: 8168650.
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    161. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Bowden DW, Halter JB, Polonsky KS. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Life Sci. 1994; 55(6):413-22. PMID: 8035658.
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    162. Herman WH, Fajans SS, Ortiz FJ, Smith MJ, Sturis J, Bell GI, Polonsky KS, Halter JB. Abnormal insulin secretion, not insulin resistance, is the genetic or primary defect of MODY in the RW pedigree. Diabetes. 1994 Jan; 43(1):40-6. PMID: 8262315.
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    163. Lewis GF, McNally C, Blackman JD, Polonsky KS, Barron WM. Prior feeding alters the response to the 50-g glucose challenge test in pregnancy. The Staub-Traugott effect revisited. Diabetes Care. 1993 Dec; 16(12):1551-6. PMID: 8299450.
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    164. Kelley DE, Wing R, Buonocore C, Sturis J, Polonsky K, Fitzsimmons M. Relative effects of calorie restriction and weight loss in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Nov; 77(5):1287-93. PMID: 8077323.
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    165. Iwashima Y, Pugh W, Depaoli AM, Takeda J, Seino S, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Expression of calcium channel mRNAs in rat pancreatic islets and downregulation after glucose infusion. Diabetes. 1993 Jul; 42(7):948-55. PMID: 7685720.
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    166. Jeng CY, Sheu WH, Jaspan JB, Polonsky KS, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Glucagon does not increase plasma free fatty acid and glycerol concentrations in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jul; 77(1):6-10. PMID: 8100832.
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    167. O'Meara NM, Sturis J, Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS. Lack of control by glucose of ultradian insulin secretory oscillations in impaired glucose tolerance and in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jul; 92(1):262-71. PMID: 8325993.
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    168. Levitt NS, Hirsch L, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Quantitative evaluation of the effect of low-intensity exercise on insulin secretion in man. Metabolism. 1993 Jul; 42(7):829-33. PMID: 8345793.
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    169. O'Meara NM, Sturis J, Blackman JD, Byrne MM, Jaspan JB, Roland DC, Thistlethwaite JR, Polonsky KS. Oscillatory insulin secretion after pancreas transplant. Diabetes. 1993 Jun; 42(6):855-61. PMID: 8495809.
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    170. O'Meara NM, Blackman JD, Ehrmann DA, Barnes RB, Jaspan JB, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Defects in beta-cell function in functional ovarian hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 May; 76(5):1241-7. PMID: 8496316.
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    171. Sturis J, O'Meara NM, Shapiro ET, Blackman JD, Tillil H, Polonsky KS, Van Cauter E. Differential effects of glucose stimulation upon rapid pulses and ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Apr; 76(4):895-901. PMID: 8473402.
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    172. O'Meara NM, Sturis J, Blackman JD, Roland DC, Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS. Analytical problems in detecting rapid insulin secretory pulses in normal humans. Am J Physiol. 1993 Feb; 264(2 Pt 1):E231-8. PMID: 8447390.
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    173. Reaven GM, Chen YD, Hollenbeck CB, Sheu WH, Ostrega D, Polonsky KS. Plasma insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin concentrations in obese and nonobese individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jan; 76(1):44-8. PMID: 8421101.
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    174. O'Meara NM, Blackman JD, Sturis J, Polonsky KS. Alterations in the kinetics of C-peptide and insulin secretion in hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jan; 76(1):79-84. PMID: 8421108.
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    175. Blackman JD, Polonsky KS, Jaspan JB, Sturis J, Van Cauter E, Thistlethwaite JR. Insulin secretory profiles and C-peptide clearance kinetics at 6 months and 2 years after kidney-pancreas transplantation. Diabetes. 1992 Oct; 41(10):1346-54. PMID: 1397710.
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    176. O'Meara NM, Lewis GF, Cabana VG, Iverius PH, Getz GS, Polonsky KS. Role of basal triglyceride and high density lipoprotein in determination of postprandial lipid and lipoprotein responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Aug; 75(2):465-71. PMID: 1639947.
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    177. Sturis J, Polonsky KS, Shapiro ET, Blackman JD, O'Meara NM, van Cauter E. Abnormalities in the ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion and glucose levels in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1992 Jul; 35(7):681-9. PMID: 1644248.
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    178. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun; 89(6):1902-7. PMID: 1601997.
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    179. Polonsky KS. A practical approach to fasting hypoglycemia. N Engl J Med. 1992 Apr 09; 326(15):1020-1. PMID: 1545839.
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    180. Van Cauter E, Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Polonsky KS. Circadian modulation of glucose and insulin responses to meals: relationship to cortisol rhythm. Am J Physiol. 1992 Apr; 262(4 Pt 1):E467-75. PMID: 1566835.
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    181. Van Cauter E, Mestrez F, Sturis J, Polonsky KS. Estimation of insulin secretion rates from C-peptide levels. Comparison of individual and standard kinetic parameters for C-peptide clearance. Diabetes. 1992 Mar; 41(3):368-77. PMID: 1551497.
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    182. Blackman JD, Towle VL, Sturis J, Lewis GF, Spire JP, Polonsky KS. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in IDDM. Diabetes. 1992 Mar; 41(3):392-9. PMID: 1551499.
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    183. Van Cauter E, Blackman JD, Roland D, Spire JP, Refetoff S, Polonsky KS. Modulation of glucose regulation and insulin secretion by circadian rhythmicity and sleep. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep; 88(3):934-42. PMID: 1885778.
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    184. Shapiro ET, Strasser S, Polonsky KS, Alejandro R, Mintz DH. Persistence of oscillatory insulin secretion in denervated islet cell autografts. Transplantation. 1991 Sep; 52(3):574-6. PMID: 1897038.
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    185. Given BD, Ostrega DM, Polonsky KS, Baldwin D, Kelley RI, Rubenstein AH. Hypoglycemia due to surreptitious injection of insulin. Identification of insulin species by high-performance liquid chromatography. Diabetes Care. 1991 Jul; 14(7):544-7. PMID: 1914793.
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    186. Sturis J, Polonsky KS, Mosekilde E, Van Cauter E. Computer model for mechanisms underlying ultradian oscillations of insulin and glucose. Am J Physiol. 1991 May; 260(5 Pt 1):E801-9. PMID: 2035636.
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    187. Lewis GF, O'Meara NM, Soltys PA, Blackman JD, Iverius PH, Pugh WL, Getz GS, Polonsky KS. Fasting hypertriglyceridemia in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an important predictor of postprandial lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Apr; 72(4):934-44. PMID: 2005221.
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    188. Lewis GF, O'Meara NM, Cabana VG, Blackman JD, Pugh WL, Druetzler AF, Lukens JR, Getz GS, Polonsky KS. Postprandial triglyceride response in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is not altered by short-term deterioration in glycaemic control or level of postprandial insulin replacement. Diabetologia. 1991 Apr; 34(4):253-9. PMID: 2065859.
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    189. Herold KC, Polonsky KS. Does tight glucose control enhance brain sensitivity to low glucose? Diabetes Care. 1991 Feb; 14(2):141-3. PMID: 2060418.
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    190. Shapiro ET, Polonsky KS, Copinschi G, Bosson D, Tillil H, Blackman J, Lewis G, Van Cauter E. Nocturnal elevation of glucose levels during fasting in noninsulin-dependent diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Feb; 72(2):444-54. PMID: 1991813.
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    191. Sturis J, Van Cauter E, Blackman JD, Polonsky KS. Entrainment of pulsatile insulin secretion by oscillatory glucose infusion. J Clin Invest. 1991 Feb; 87(2):439-45. PMID: 1991830.
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    192. Cooper MD, Chen CT, Metz J, Polonsky K, Levy J. Effects of insulin mediated plasma glucose changes on brain function. Implications from experimental and derived data. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1991; 376:161-2. PMID: 1666765.
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    193. Strack TR, Greenberg GR, Polonsky KS, Albisser AM. The effect of a time delay on the characteristics of the canine glucoregulatory system. Metabolism. 1990 Dec; 39(12):1219-24. PMID: 2246959.
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    194. Tillil H, Frank BH, Pekar AH, Broelsch C, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Hypoglycemic potency and metabolic clearance rate of intravenously administered human proinsulin and metabolites. Endocrinology. 1990 Nov; 127(5):2418-22. PMID: 2226325.
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    195. Lewis GF, O'Meara NM, Soltys PA, Blackman JD, Iverius PH, Druetzler AF, Getz GS, Polonsky KS. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in normal and obese subjects: comparison after the vitamin A fat-loading test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Oct; 71(4):1041-50. PMID: 2401706.
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    196. O'Meara NM, Shapiro ET, Van Cauter E, Polonsky KS. Effect of glyburide on beta cell responsiveness to glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1990 Aug 20; 89(2A):11S-16S; discussion 51S-53S. PMID: 2117385.
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    197. Wojcikowski C, Blackman J, Ostrega D, Lewis G, Galloway J, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Lack of effect of high-dose biosynthetic human C-peptide on pancreatic hormone release in normal subjects. Metabolism. 1990 Aug; 39(8):827-32. PMID: 2198434.
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    198. Beebe CA, Van Cauter E, Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Lyons R, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Effect of temporal distribution of calories on diurnal patterns of glucose levels and insulin secretion in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1990 Jul; 13(7):748-55. PMID: 2201497.
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    199. Blackman JD, Towle VL, Lewis GF, Spire JP, Polonsky KS. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in humans. Diabetes. 1990 Jul; 39(7):828-35. PMID: 2191886.
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    200. Gumbiner B, Polonsky KS, Beltz WF, Griver K, Wallace P, Brechtel G, Henry RR. Effects of weight loss and reduced hyperglycemia on the kinetics of insulin secretion in obese non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jun; 70(6):1594-602. PMID: 2189885.
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    201. Shapiro ET, Bell GI, Polonsky KS, Rubenstein AH, Kew MC, Tager HS. Tumor hypoglycemia: relationship to high molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-II. J Clin Invest. 1990 May; 85(5):1672-9. PMID: 2159026.
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    202. Kryshak EJ, Butler PC, Marsh C, Miller A, Barr D, Polonsky K, Perkins JD, Rizza RA. Pattern of postprandial carbohydrate metabolism and effects of portal and peripheral insulin delivery. Diabetes. 1990 Feb; 39(2):142-8. PMID: 2227121.
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    203. Shapiro ET, Cooper M, Chen CT, Given BD, Polonsky KS. Change in hexose distribution volume and fractional utilization of [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose in brain during acute hypoglycemia in humans. Diabetes. 1990 Feb; 39(2):175-80. PMID: 2227124.
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    204. Gumbiner B, Polonsky KS, Beltz WF, Wallace P, Brechtel G, Fink RI. Effects of aging on insulin secretion. Diabetes. 1989 Dec; 38(12):1549-56. PMID: 2684711.
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    205. Shapiro ET, Van Cauter E, Tillil H, Given BD, Hirsch L, Beebe C, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Glyburide enhances the responsiveness of the beta-cell to glucose but does not correct the abnormal patterns of insulin secretion in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Sep; 69(3):571-6. PMID: 2503533.
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    206. Kremser CB, Levitt NS, Borow KM, Jaspan JB, Lindbloom C, Polonsky KS, Leff AR. Oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in diabetic neuropathy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Dec; 65(6):2665-71. PMID: 3215866.
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    207. Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Peripheral insulin parallels changes in insulin secretion more closely than C-peptide after bolus intravenous glucose administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Nov; 67(5):1094-9. PMID: 3053748.
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    208. Tillil H, Shapiro ET, Rubenstein AH, Galloway JA, Polonsky KS. Reduction of insulin clearance during hyperglycemic clamp. Dose-response study in normal humans. Diabetes. 1988 Oct; 37(10):1351-7. PMID: 3046967.
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    209. Tillil H, Shapiro ET, Given BD, Rue P, Rubenstein AH, Galloway JA, Polonsky KS. Reevaluation of urine C-peptide as measure of insulin secretion. Diabetes. 1988 Sep; 37(9):1195-201. PMID: 3044885.
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    210. Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Polonsky KS, Fang VS, Rubenstein AH, Van Cauter E. Oscillations in insulin secretion during constant glucose infusion in normal man: relationship to changes in plasma glucose. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Aug; 67(2):307-14. PMID: 3292558.
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    211. Alejandro R, Latif Z, Polonsky KS, Shienvold FL, Civantos F, Mint DH. Natural history of multiple intrahepatic canine islet allografts during and following administration of cyclosporine. Transplantation. 1988 Jun; 45(6):1036-44. PMID: 3132761.
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    212. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Hirsch LJ, Tillil H, Shapiro ET, Beebe C, Frank BH, Galloway JA, Van Cauter E. Abnormal patterns of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1988 May 12; 318(19):1231-9. PMID: 3283554.
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    213. Tillil H, Shapiro ET, Miller MA, Karrison T, Frank BH, Galloway JA, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Dose-dependent effects of oral and intravenous glucose on insulin secretion and clearance in normal humans. Am J Physiol. 1988 Mar; 254(3 Pt 1):E349-57. PMID: 3279811.
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    214. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Hirsch L, Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Beebe C, Galloway JA, Frank BH, Karrison T, Van Cauter E. Quantitative study of insulin secretion and clearance in normal and obese subjects. J Clin Invest. 1988 Feb; 81(2):435-41. PMID: 3276729.
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    215. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Van Cauter E. Twenty-four-hour profiles and pulsatile patterns of insulin secretion in normal and obese subjects. J Clin Invest. 1988 Feb; 81(2):442-8. PMID: 3276730.
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    216. Shapiro ET, Tillil H, Miller MA, Frank BH, Galloway JA, Rubenstein AH, Polonsky KS. Insulin secretion and clearance. Comparison after oral and intravenous glucose. Diabetes. 1987 Dec; 36(12):1365-71. PMID: 3315785.
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    217. Vølund A, Polonsky KS, Bergman RN. Calculated pattern of intraportal insulin appearance without independent assessment of C-peptide kinetics. Diabetes. 1987 Oct; 36(10):1195-202. PMID: 2888696.
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    218. Cohen RM, Licinio J, Polonsky KS, Galloway JA, Frank BH, Cherrington AD, Rubenstein AH. The effect of biosynthetic human proinsulin on the hepatic response to glucagon in insulin-deficient diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Mar; 64(3):476-81. PMID: 3546347.
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    219. Nanjo K, Miyano M, Kondo M, Sanke T, Nishimura S, Miyamura K, Inouye K, Given BD, Chan SJ, Polonsky KS, et al. Insulin Wakayama: familial mutant insulin syndrome in Japan. Diabetologia. 1987 Feb; 30(2):87-92. PMID: 3552828.
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    220. Cohen RM, Given BD, Licinio-Paixao J, Provow SA, Rue PA, Frank BH, Root MA, Polonsky KS, Tager HS, Rubenstein AH. Proinsulin radioimmunoassay in the evaluation of insulinomas and familial hyperproinsulinemia. Metabolism. 1986 Dec; 35(12):1137-46. PMID: 3023795.
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    221. Stagner J, Samols E, Polonsky K, Pugh W. Lack of direct inhibition of insulin secretion by exogenous insulin in the canine pancreas. J Clin Invest. 1986 Nov; 78(5):1193-8. PMID: 2877010.
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    222. Alejandro R, Cutfield RG, Shienvold FL, Polonsky KS, Noel J, Olson L, Dillberger J, Miller J, Mintz DH. Natural history of intrahepatic canine islet cell autografts. J Clin Invest. 1986 Nov; 78(5):1339-48. PMID: 3095376.
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    223. Jaspan JB, Lever E, Polonsky KS, Van Cauter E. In vivo pulsatility of pancreatic islet peptides. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug; 251(2 Pt 1):E215-26. PMID: 2874743.
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    224. Licinio-Paixao J, Polonsky KS, Given BD, Pugh W, Ostrega D, Frank BF, Rubenstein AH. Ingestion of a mixed meal does not affect the metabolic clearance rate of biosynthetic human C-peptide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Aug; 63(2):401-3. PMID: 3722329.
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    225. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Pugh W, Licinio-Paixao J, Thompson JE, Karrison T, Rubenstein AH. Calculation of the systemic delivery rate of insulin in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jul; 63(1):113-8. PMID: 3519643.
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    226. Morishima T, Pye S, Polonsky K, Radziuk J. The measurement and validation of the nonsteady-state rates of C-peptide appearance in the dog. Diabetologia. 1986 Jul; 29(7):440-6. PMID: 3527843.
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    227. Shoelson SE, Polonsky KS, Nakabayashi T, Jaspan JB, Tager HS. Circulating forms of somatostatinlike immunoreactivity in human plasma. Am J Physiol. 1986 Apr; 250(4 Pt 1):E428-34. PMID: 3963183.
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    228. Polonsky K, Frank B, Pugh W, Addis A, Karrison T, Meier P, Tager H, Rubenstein A. The limitations to and valid use of C-peptide as a marker of the secretion of insulin. Diabetes. 1986 Apr; 35(4):379-86. PMID: 3514322.
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    229. Polonsky KS, Licinio-Paixao J, Given BD, Pugh W, Rue P, Galloway J, Karrison T, Frank B. Use of biosynthetic human C-peptide in the measurement of insulin secretion rates in normal volunteers and type I diabetic patients. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jan; 77(1):98-105. PMID: 3511094.
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    230. Nanjo K, Sanke T, Kondo M, Nishimura S, Miyano M, Linuma J, Miyamura K, Inouye K, Given BD, Polonsky KS, et al. Mutant insulin syndrome: identification of two families with [LeuA3]insulin and determination of its biological activity. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1986; 99:132-42. PMID: 3299984.
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    231. Polonsky KS, Rubenstein AH. Current approaches to measurement of insulin secretion. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1986; 2(3-4):315-29. PMID: 3527618.
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    232. Herold KC, Polonsky KS, Cohen RM, Levy J, Douglas F. Variable deterioration in cortical function during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 1985 Jul; 34(7):677-85. PMID: 3891475.
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    233. Cutfield RG, Polonsky K, Olson L, Kyriakides G, Miller J, Mintz DH. Long-term follow-up of canine segmental pancreatic autografts. Diabetes. 1985 Feb; 34(2):174-8. PMID: 2857144.
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    234. Polonsky KS, Herold KC, Gilden JL, Bergenstal RM, Fang VS, Moossa AR, Jaspan JB. Glucose counterregulation in patients after pancreatectomy. Comparison with other clinical forms of diabetes. Diabetes. 1984 Nov; 33(11):1112-9. PMID: 6389228.
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    235. Polonsky KS, Pugh W, Jaspan JB, Cohen DM, Karrison T, Tager HS, Rubenstein AH. C-peptide and insulin secretion. Relationship between peripheral concentrations of C-peptide and insulin and their secretion rates in the dog. J Clin Invest. 1984 Nov; 74(5):1821-9. PMID: 6389599.
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    236. Cohen DM, Jaspan JB, Polonsky KS, Lever EG, Moossa AR. Pancreatic hormone profiles and metabolism posthepatectomy in the dog. Evidence for a hepatotrophic role of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide. Gastroenterology. 1984 Sep; 87(3):679-87. PMID: 6146553.
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    237. Revers RR, Henry R, Schmeiser L, Kolterman O, Cohen R, Bergenstal R, Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Rubenstein A, Frank B, et al. The effects of biosynthetic human proinsulin on carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes. 1984 Aug; 33(8):762-70. PMID: 6378699.
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    238. Bergenstal RM, Cohen RM, Lever E, Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Blix PM, Revers R, Olefsky JM, Kolterman O, Steiner K, et al. The metabolic effects of biosynthetic human proinsulin in individuals with type I diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jun; 58(6):973-9. PMID: 6373814.
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    239. Haneda M, Polonsky KS, Bergenstal RM, Jaspan JB, Shoelson SE, Blix PM, Chan SJ, Kwok SC, Wishner WB, Zeidler A, et al. Familial hyperinsulinemia due to a structurally abnormal insulin. Definition of an emerging new clinical syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1984 May 17; 310(20):1288-94. PMID: 6371526.
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    240. Polonsky KS, Rubenstein AH. C-peptide as a measure of the secretion and hepatic extraction of insulin. Pitfalls and limitations. Diabetes. 1984 May; 33(5):486-94. PMID: 6373457.
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    241. Shoelson SE, Polonsky KS, Zeidler A, Rubenstein AH, Tager HS. Human insulin B24 (Phe----Ser). Secretion and metabolic clearance of the abnormal insulin in man and in a dog model. J Clin Invest. 1984 May; 73(5):1351-8. PMID: 6371057.
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    242. Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Pugh W, Cohen D, Schneider M, Schwartz T, Moossa AR, Tager H, Rubenstein AH. Metabolism of C-peptide in the dog. In vivo demonstration of the absence of hepatic extraction. J Clin Invest. 1983 Sep; 72(3):1114-23. PMID: 6350363.
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    243. Hagopian W, Lever EG, Cohen D, Emmanouel D, Polonsky KS, Pugh W, Moossa A, Jaspan JB. Predominance of renal and absence of hepatic metabolism of pancreatic polypeptide in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1983 Aug; 245(2):E171-7. PMID: 6881330.
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    244. Bergenstal RM, Polonsky KS, Pons G, Jaspan JB, Rubenstein AH. Lack of glucagon response to hypoglycemia in type I diabetics after long-term optimal therapy with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Diabetes. 1983 May; 32(5):398-402. PMID: 6840400.
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    245. Polonsky KS, Shoelson SE, Docherty HM. Plasma somatostatin 28 increases in response to feeding in man. J Clin Invest. 1983 May; 71(5):1514-8. PMID: 6133883.
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    246. Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Emmanouel D, Holmes K, Moossa AR. Differences in the hepatic and renal extraction of insulin and glucagon in the dog: evidence for saturability of insulin metabolism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1983 Mar; 102(3):420-7. PMID: 6338678.
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    247. Soybel D, Jaspan J, Polonsky K, Goldberg I, Rayfield E, Tager H. Differential immunoreactivity of plasma glucagon components in man: studies with different glucagon antibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Mar; 56(3):612-8. PMID: 6185527.
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    248. Judzewitsch RG, Jaspan JB, Polonsky KS, Weinberg CR, Halter JB, Halar E, Pfeifer MA, Vukadinovic C, Bernstein L, Schneider M, Liang KY, Gabbay KH, Rubenstein AH, Porte D. Aldose reductase inhibition improves nerve conduction velocity in diabetic patients. N Engl J Med. 1983 Jan 20; 308(3):119-25. PMID: 6401351.
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    249. Shoelson SE, Peters AL, Nakabayashi T, Polonsky KS. Responses of somatostatin components to oral glucose in human plasma. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1983; 96:113-21. PMID: 6149644.
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    250. Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Berelowitz M, Pugh W, Moossa A, Ling N. The in vivo metabolism of somatostatin 28: possible relationship between diminished metabolism and enhanced biological action. Endocrinology. 1982 Nov; 111(5):1698-703. PMID: 6127205.
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    251. Polonsky K, Bergenstal R, Pons G, Schneider M, Jaspan J, Rubenstein A. Relation of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in type I diabetics. N Engl J Med. 1982 Oct 28; 307(18):1106-12. PMID: 7121528.
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    252. Shoelson S, Polonsky K, Docherty H, Jaspan J, Rubenstein A. Evidence for the presence of somatostatin 28 in plasma. Diabetes. 1982 May; 31(5 Pt 1):474-7. PMID: 6130021.
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    253. Bonnevie-Nielsen V, Polonsky KS, Jaspan JJ, Rubenstein AH, Schwartz TW, Tager HS. Surface receptors for pancreatic hormones in dog and rat hepatocytes: qualitative and quantitative differences in hormone-target cell interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Apr; 79(7):2167-71. PMID: 6285368.
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    254. Jaspan J, Polonsky K. Glucose ingestion in dogs alters the hepatic extraction of insulin. In vivo evidence for a relationship between biologic action and extraction of insulin. J Clin Invest. 1982 Mar; 69(3):516-25. PMID: 7037850.
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    255. Polonsky KS, Jaspan JB, Berelowitz M, Emmanouel DS, Dhorajiwala J. Hepatic and renal metabolism of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity. Simultaneous assessment in the dog. J Clin Invest. 1981 Nov; 68(5):1149-57. PMID: 6117570.
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    256. Jaspan JB, Polonsky KS, Röjdmark S, Ishida T, Field JB, Rubenstein AH. Hepatic extraction of plasma immunoreactive glucagon components. Predilection for 3500-dalton glucagon metabolism by the liver. Diabetes. 1981 Sep; 30(9):767-72. PMID: 7262472.
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    257. Polonsky K, Jaspan J, Pugh W, Dhorajiwala J, Abraham M, Blix P, Moossa AR. Insulin and glucagon breakthrough of somatostatin suppression: importance of portal vein hormone measurements. Diabetes. 1981 Aug; 30(8):664-9. PMID: 6114006.
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    258. Stacpoole PW, Jaspan J, Kasselberg AG, Halter SA, Polonsky K, Gluck FW, Liljenquist JE, Rabin D. A familial glucagonoma syndrome: genetic, clinical and biochemical features. Am J Med. 1981 May; 70(5):1017-26. PMID: 6112877.
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    259. Jaspan JB, Polonsky KS, Lewis M, Pensler J, Pugh W, Moossa AR, Rubenstein AH. Hepatic metabolism of glucagon in the dog: contribution of the liver to overall metabolic disposal of glucagon. Am J Physiol. 1981 Mar; 240(3):E233-44. PMID: 7011049.
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    260. Jaspan J, Polonsky K, Lewis M, Moossa AR. Reduction in portal vein blood flow by somatostatin. Diabetes. 1979 Oct; 28(10):888-92. PMID: 478183.
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